Grupos delictivos en Estados Unidos (2005)

National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
CONTENTS
FOREWORD ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS …………………………………………………………………………………………..iv
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY …………………………………………………………………………………………v
GENERAL TRENDS …………………………………………………………………………………………………vi
REGIONAL TREND ………………………………………………………………………………………………….vii
Northeast …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..vii
South .vii
Midwest ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..vii
West ..vii
INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….ix
METHODOLOGY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………1
GANGS AND DRUGS ………………………………………………………………………………………………1
GANGS AND ORGANIZED CRIME ………………………………………………………………………..2
Asian Organized Crime ………………………………………………………………………………………..3
Russian Organized Crime …………………………………………………………………………………….3
GANGS AND TECHNOLOGY …………………………………………………………………………………3
Cell Phones ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3
Computers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….4
Internet ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
GANGS AND TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS ……………………………………………………..5
Domestic Terrorist Groups …………………………………………………………………………………….5
International Terrorist Groups ………………………………………………………………………………..5
Terrorist Recruitment in Prisons …………………………………………………………………………….5
PRISON GANGS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….5
HISPANIC GANGS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………7
Prominent Hispanic Gangs ……………………………………………………………………………………7
Migration of Sureños Into the Southwestern United States ………………………………………..9
Identifying and Distinguishing Hispanic Gangs ………………………………………………………..10
Gang Coordination and Alliances …………………………………………………………………………..10
Foreign Law Enforcement Efforts to Combat Gangs …………………………………………………10
i
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
FEMALE GANGS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..10
GANGS AND INDIAN COUNTRY …………………………………………………………………………..11
OUTLAW MOTORCYCLE GANGS …………………………………………………………………………12
Drug Traf.cking …………………………………………………………………………………………………..13
Outlaw Motorcycle Gang Expansion ………………………………………………………………………14
COMMUNITY RESPONSE TO GANGS …………………………………………………………………14
Community …………………………………………………………………………………………………………14
Law Enforcement …………………………………………………………………………………………………15
NORTHEASTERN REGION …………………………………………………………………………………….16
General Trends ……………………………………………………………………………………………………16
Gang Presence and Migration ……………………………………………………………………………….16
National Gangs ……………………………………………………………………………………………………17
Drug Trends ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..18
Criminal Activity …………………………………………………………………………………………………..19
SOUTHERN REGION ……………………………………………………………………………………………….20
General Trends ……………………………………………………………………………………………………20
Gang Presence and Migration ……………………………………………………………………………….21
National Gangs ……………………………………………………………………………………………………21
Drug Trends ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..23
Criminal Activity …………………………………………………………………………………………………..25
MIDWESTERN REGION ………………………………………………………………………………………….25
General Trends ……………………………………………………………………………………………………25
Gang Presence and Migration ……………………………………………………………………………….25
National Gangs ……………………………………………………………………………………………………26
Drug Trends ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..28
Criminal Activity …………………………………………………………………………………………………..29
WESTERN REGION …………………………………………………………………………………………………29
General Trends ……………………………………………………………………………………………………29
Gang Presence and Migration ……………………………………………………………………………….30
National Gangs ……………………………………………………………………………………………………30
Drug Trends ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..33
Criminal Activity …………………………………………………………………………………………………..34
OUTLOOK ..36
NOTES ……..56
ii
FOREWORD
Once found principally in large cities, violent street gangs now affect public safety, community
image, and quality of life in communities of all sizes in urban, suburban, and rural areas. No
region of the United States is untouched by gangs. Gangs affect society at all levels, causing
heightened fears for safety, violence, and economic costs.
Funded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), this report is the result of a collaborative
effort among the members of the National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations (NAGIA).
NAGIA is composed of the leadership of 15 state and regional gang investigators associations,
representing over 10,000 gang investigators across the country, and representatives of federal
agencies and other organizations involved in gang-related matters.
NAGIA is dedicated to educating and informing professionals dealing with gangs. The purpose
of the 2005 National Gang Threat Assessment is to provide a national and regional picture of the
threat posed by gangs. It is anticipated that the assessment will help federal, state, and local
policymakers and law enforcement agency administrators understand the dimensions of the
national gang problem and assist them in formulating policy and allocating resources.
Additional information about gangs may be found by visiting the NAGIA Web site, www.nagia.org.
iii
iv
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The 2005 National Gang Threat Assessment is a collaborative effort in the best sense of the
word. While it contains information obtained from many sources, the assessment also represents
personal involvement, hard work, and task sharing by employees of many organizations at all levels
of government. It presents a unique, multilevel perspective on the nation’s gang problem.
Funding for this effort was provided by a grant from the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of
Justice Assistance (BJA). Without the vision and resources provided by BJA, the assessment
could never have been initiated, and without the cooperation, perseverance, and contributions of
the partners, it would not have been completed. Surveys were mailed to hundreds of investigators
who are members of the 15 state and regional gang investigators associations that comprise the
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations (NAGIA). These responses from local law
enforcement of.cers form the basis for the assessment. To this information on gang activity was
added intelligence generated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, National Drug Intelligence
Center (NDIC), and two of the Regional Information Sharing Systems® (RISS) centers: the Middle
Atlantic-Great Lakes Organized Crime Law Enforcement Network® and the New England State
Police Information Network®. Valuable assistance in data collection was also provided by the Ohio
Attorney General’s Of.ce, and the National Youth Gang Center™ assisted the partners throughout
the process.
NAGIA especially appreciates the hard work and support for this project provided by the Federal
Bureau of Investigation, whose staff coded and analyzed the survey responses, integrated the
collateral intelligence, and produced the written report. We also appreciate the review of the report
and suggestions provided by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives.
NAGIA would particularly like to acknowledge the support for anti-gang and anti-violence efforts of
the Of.ce of Justice Programs and the U.S. Department of Justice, such as the Gang Resistance
Education And Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program and the Project Safe Neighborhoods (PSN) Initiative.
We commend their work and hope that these efforts will continue to support state and local law
enforcement in their .ght against gangs.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The pervasiveness of gangs throughout society is undeniable. They incite fear and violence within
our communities. Gangs threaten our schools, our children, and our homes. Gangs today are
more sophisticated and .agrant in their use of violence and intimidation tactics. As they migrate
across the country, they bring with them drugs, weapons, and criminal activity. Acceptance of the
problem and joint community and law enforcement responses are our best defense.
Law enforcement respondents to the 2005 National Gang Threat Assessment noted several trends
that were prevalent across the country.
v
GENERAL TRENDS
• Gangs remain the primary distributors of drugs throughout the United States.
• Gangs are associating with organized crime entities, such as Mexican drug organizations, Asian
criminal groups, and Russian organized crime groups. These groups often turn to gangs to
conduct low-level criminal activities, protect territories, and facilitate drug-traf.cking activities.
Financial gain is the primary goal of any association between these groups.
• Gang members are becoming more sophisticated in their use of computers and technology.
These new tools are used to communicate, facilitate criminal activity, and avoid detection by law
enforcement.
• Few gangs have been found to associate with domestic terrorist organizations. The susceptibility
of gang members to any type of terrorist organization appears to be highest in prison.
• Prison gangs pose a unique threat to law enforcement and communities. Incarceration of gang
members often does little to disrupt their activities. High-ranking gang members are often able to
exert their in.uence on the street from within prison.
• Hispanic gang membership is on the rise. These gangs are migrating and expanding their
jurisdictions throughout the country. Identi.cation and differentiation of these gangs pose new
obstacles for law enforcement, especially in rural communities.
• Migration of California-style gang culture remains a particular threat. The migration spreads the
reach of gangs into new neighborhoods and promotes a .ourishing gang subculture.
• While the number of all-female gangs remains low, the role of women in gangs is evolving.
Women are taking more active roles, assisting in the movement of drugs and weapons, and
gathering intelligence from other gangs.
• Indian Country is increasingly reporting escalating levels of gang activity and gang-related crime
and drug traf.cking. The remote nature of many reservations and a thriving gang subculture
make youth in these environments particularly vulnerable to gangs.
• Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are expanding their territory and forming new clubs. This is
re.ected in increased violence among OMGs as they battle over territories.
• Approximately 31 percent of survey respondents indicated that their communities refused to
acknowledge the gang problem. Several communities only began to address gang issues when
high-pro.le gang-related incidents occurred.
• Forming multiagency task forces and joint community groups is an effective way to combat the
problem. However, decreases in funding and staf.ng to many task forces have created new
challenges for communities.
vi
REGIONAL TRENDS
While general trends were apparent across the nation, each region also noted speci.c trends
affecting their communities.
Northeast
• Neighborhood or homegrown gangs and hybrid gangs are being seen with increasing frequency.
• A growth of gangs within Hispanic immigrant communities has occurred recently, bringing
increased violence and crime to many communities.
• The frequency of incidents of gang-related violence and drug traf.cking on Indian reservations
has increased.
• Gang members display a lack of respect for their community and for law enforcement.
• This region is particularly vulnerable to drug distribution by gangs because of the compact nature
of the region and the well-developed transportation infrastructure.
• Gangs are reported to be most frequently involved in crimes relating to vandalism and graf.ti,
.rearms possession, assault, and homicide.
South
• Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) is one of the newest threats to the region, especially in Washington,
DC, Virginia, and the surrounding areas.
• The growth of gangs within the Hispanic community has brought increased levels of violence and
crime to the region.
• Communities are noting increases in graf.ti and tagging.
• Neighborhood or homegrown gangs are reported throughout the region.
• Gangs in this region are most likely to be involved in the distribution and sale of marijuana and
cocaine.
Midwest
• Gang activity around schools and college campuses has increased.
• Gangs are concealing their af.liations and colors to hide from law enforcement.
• Gangs are substantially involved in both the wholesale and street-level distribution of drugs in
this region.
• Gangs are increasingly cooperating with each other to facilitate crime and drug traf.cking.
• Gang and drug activity in Indian Country has increased.
• Indian Country is being affected by the high level of drug traf.cking. Hispanic street gangs are
reportedly using Native Americans to transport narcotics onto reservations.
West
• Gangs are employing an increased level of sophistication in the planning and execution of
criminal acts, especially against law enforcement of.cers.
vii
• Street gangs are frequently involved in the distribution of both marijuana and methamphetamine.
• The number of cases of identity and credit card theft perpetrated by gang members has
increased.
• Reports indicate an increased use of .rearms by gang members.
• Approximately three-quarters of respondents to this survey reported moderate to high
involvement of gangs in the street-level distribution of drugs.
• More than 90 percent of respondents in this region reported some level of gang involvement in
vandalism and graf.ti.
viii
INTRODUCTION
The 2005 National Gang Threat Assessment brought to light several new trends in gang activity
and gang migration. Hispanic gang membership is growing, especially in the Northeast and South.
Gangs are more sophisticated in their use of technology and computers and are using these tools to
perpetrate criminal acts. Respondents reiterated that gangs remain a constant threat, that they are
still growing in membership and violence, and that denial by communities is a gang’s greatest ally.
As gangs migrate across the country, they bring with them crime and violence. Reasons for
migration range from expansion of territories to families moving because of jobs or incarceration.
As families move, they bring with them children, associates, and long-distance ties to gangs. The
migration of gang members leads to the establishment of gangs in neighborhoods previously gangfree
and may bring new arrivals into potentially deadly con.ict with local gangs. Many times the
migratory pattern, as well as the genesis and growth of homegrown gangs, is indirectly aided by
of.cial denial. This allows the gangs to work with anonymity, establishing gang turfs that support
narcotic networks and neighborhood drug dealing. Gang members returning from prison also have
an impact on neighborhoods. Jurisdictions with returning members have documented notable
increases in violence and drug traf.cking.1 Lack of community-assistance programs for these
individuals only compounds the problem.
New immigrant populations in the United States are also vulnerable to gang activity. Often
immigrants are isolated in communities by language and employment dif.culties. This is apparent
in many Hispanic immigrant communities. Hispanic gangs .ourish as a means of providing the
communities with support and protection. Asian gangs, on the other hand, often victimize Asian
communities, as the communities are less likely to report crimes to law enforcement.
New hybrid and homegrown gangs with no apparent national af.liations are blurring the traditional
boundaries of alliances and rivalries. In some communities, colors, tattoos, and outward
acknowledgement of gang af.liations are less visible as gangs try to hide from law enforcement. In
other jurisdictions, gangs are uniting to strengthen and facilitate more extensive criminal activities.
Money remains the driving force behind most criminal enterprises.
Across the nation, gang-related statistics are maintained sporadically, making it dif.cult to obtain
an exact measurement of gang violence. Additionally, the lack of a national de.nition of gang and
gang-related crime acceptable to law enforcement and the political establishment compounds the
problem. Only estimates of the actual number of gangs and gang members across the United
States exist. The most recent survey conducted by the National Youth Gang Center estimates the
number of youth gangs in the United States to be 21,500, with 731,500 gang members.2 Prison
gangs, motorcycle gangs, and adult gangs are excluded from these estimates. The 2002 National
Youth Gang Survey, conducted by the National Youth Gang Center, also found that all cities with
populations of 250,000 or more reported a youth gang problem; in addition, 87 percent of cities with
populations between 100,000 and 249,999 reported youth gang problems.3
Apparent in many responses to the 2005 National Gang Threat Assessment was community
fear. Citizens often expressed fear of the continual violence in their neighborhoods, and they also
expressed fear for their children. Gang members are recruiting in elementary, middle, and high
schools, and children are often forced to join one gang for protection from another.
Throughout the 2005 National Gang Threat Assessment, law enforcement agencies have noted
trends and patterns of gang activity. However, reiterated throughout is the underlying need for
communities and law enforcement to jointly acknowledge and address this problem.
ix
METHODOLOGY
The results reported in this document are the compilation
of information received from 455 law enforcement
agencies across the country. The agencies represent gang
investigators at the federal, state,
and local levels. A detailed survey
was distributed to law enforcement
agencies across the country by
member organizations of NAGIA
(see Appendix). Results from
the surveys were entered into an
SPSS database. Agencies were
asked to provide relevant opensource
materials to supplement this
report. Additionally, presidents of
the NAGIA member associations
were asked to provide an overview
of gang trends and patterns in their
respective regions.
The information reported here is not representative of the
nation as a whole, nor is it based on a statistically valid
sample. It merely presents a snapshot of trends and
patterns of gang activity as documented by these law
enforcement entities.
GANGS AND DRUGS
Gangs, whether street gangs, OMGs, or prison gangs,
are the primary distributors of drugs throughout the United
States.4 They are involved in distribution at both the
wholesale and retail/street levels. Gangs consistently
travel across the country, seeking out new territory and
traf.cking routes for distribution.
Suburban and rural areas, as well
as Indian Country, are increasingly
reporting gang- and drug-related
criminal activity. Overall, 31.6
percent of respondents to the 2005
National Gang Threat Assessment
indicated that gangs were highly
involved in drug distribution at
the retail level, while 28.6 percent
indicated at least moderate
involvement. Gangs in both the West and Northeast were
more likely to be highly involved in drug distribution at the
retail level than gangs in the South and Midwest.
Gangs often use drug traf.cking as their primary means
of .nancial gain. Gang members are more likely to
be involved in retail, street-level sales of drugs than in
wholesale traf.cking. As gangs become more involved
in the sale of drugs, the likelihood of criminal activity
increases.5 The correlation between crime and drug
traf.cking is highest for robbery and aggravated assault;
thus, regions experiencing an increase in gang-related drug
traf.cking can expect to see a rise in crime rates.6
While gang involvement in wholesale drug distribution
is less than in retail distribution, 18 percent of law
enforcement respondents indicated that gangs were highly
involved in wholesale drug distribution, with the Midwest
reporting the highest activity.
Additionally, law enforcement agencies were asked to
indicate the level of gang involvement in the distribution
and traf.cking of speci.c illicit narcotics. Table 2 reports
the percentage, by region, of moderate and high gang
involvement in the distribution of these drugs.
Gang involvement in the distribution of marijuana is
highest in the West, where 79 percent of law enforcement
respondents reported moderate to high gang involvement
in its distribution. Gangs obtain marijuana primarily from
Mexican, Colombian, and Jamaican criminal groups.7
Northeast South Midwest West Total
Street Sales
High 39.2 24.3 29.5 39.2 31.6
Moderate 21.6 28.9 22.7 34.3 28.6
Low 17.6 23.1 27.3 16.1 21.1
None/Unknown 21.6 23.7 20.5 10.5 18.7
Wholesale
High 15.7 14.5 22.7 20.3 18.0
Moderate 25.5 19.7 20.5 24.5 22.0
Low 25.5 32.4 31.8 28.7 30.3
None/Unknown 33.3 33.5 25.0 26.6 29.7
Table 1. Level of Street Gang Involvement in Distribution (Percentage by Region)
*Table columns do not add up to 100% due to rounding.
Drug Type Northeast South Midwest West Total
Powdered Cocaine 52.9 38.7 37.5 32.9 38.2
Crack Cocaine 52.9 45.7 60.2 39.2 47.3
Heroin 45.1 17.9 25.0 35.7 27.9
Marijuana 56.9 54.3 67.0 79.0 64.8
Methamphetamine 17.6 24.9 23.9 73.4 39.1
MDMA 31.4 19.1 18.1 30.1 23.7
Table 2. Moderate and High Gang Involvement in Distribution (Percentage by Region)
1
Distribution by gang members occurs at both the wholesale
and retail levels.8
Law enforcement respondents noted that gangs were
actively involved in the distribution of cocaine—particularly
crack cocaine—with 38 percent of respondents reporting
moderate to high involvement in the distribution of
powdered cocaine and 47.3 percent reporting moderate to
high involvement in the distribution of crack cocaine. While
most cocaine is obtained from Mexican, Colombian, and
Dominican criminal groups, such gangs as the Bloods, the
Crips, 18th Street, and Mara Salvatrucha have also been
known to smuggle the drugs from Mexico.9 In addition,
OMGs are known to smuggle cocaine into the United
States from Canada.10 Hispanic and African-American
gangs are the primary distributors of cocaine at the retail
level in every region of the United States.11
Gang involvement in heroin distribution is highest in the
Northeast, although each region is greatly affected by this
narcotic. Reports indicate that heroin distribution is on the
rise in suburban and rural areas.12 Colombian, Mexican,
Dominican, Nigerian, and Asian criminal groups are the
primary suppliers of heroin to gangs in the United States.13
While such gangs as the Gangster Disciples, Vice Lord
Nation, the Bloods, the Crips, 18th Street, Neta, and the
Latin Kings distribute heroin throughout the United States,
distribution at the retail level varies by jurisdiction.14
While most regions report less involvement by gangs in
the distribution of methamphetamine, 73.4 percent of
respondents from the West indicated high to moderate
involvement by gangs in the distribution of this drug.
Overall, only 39.1 percent of respondents indicated
moderate to high involvement by gangs. OMGs, street
gangs, and prison gangs are all involved in the distribution
of methamphetamine.15 OMGs have been reported to
produce, transport, and distribute
methamphetamine throughout the
United States.16
Overall, 23.7 percent of respondents
reported moderate to high gang
involvement in the distribution of
MDMA (also known as Ecstasy).
Asian-based criminal groups, both
in the United States and Canada,
provide large quantities of MDMA to
street gangs in the United States.17
OMGs also obtain this drug from
Canada.18 However, Israeli and
Russian criminal
groups have
been reported
to control most
wholesale
distribution of
MDMA in the
United States.19
While street
gangs are
active in the retail distribution of MDMA, reports indicate
that Caucasian males aged 18 to 30 control most retail
distribution.20
GANGS AND
ORGANIZED CRIME
Approximately 26 percent of law enforcement agencies
surveyed indicated that gangs were associated with
organized crime (OC) entities in their jurisdictions. Criminal
enterprises, whether street gangs or OC groups, are
involved in similar criminal activities and often cooperate
with each other to the extent that it will increase their pro.ts
and expand their control of illicit activities. Of the reporting
agencies in the Western region, 44 percent reported a nexus
between gangs and organized crime entities (Figure 1).
The 116 law enforcement respondents who indicated
positive associations were asked to further elaborate on
the type of associations present in their regions. Table 3
displays the results. Eight out of ten investigators indicated
gangs were associated with Mexican drug organizations—
an expected result, as drug traf.cking is the primary
source of income for most gangs. Law enforcement
of.cials identi.ed two additional groups with which a high
percentage of gangs were associated: Asian and Russian
OC groups.
2
Figure 1. Percentage of Agencies Reporting a Positive Association Between
Gangs and Organized Crime (by Region)
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Percentage
Northeast South Midwest West
Region
Agencies Reporting
Positive Associations
16.0
20.7
14.3
44.0
Asian Organized Crime
Approximately 28 percent of law enforcement agencies
reported that gangs were associated with Asian OC groups.
It is not uncommon for Asian criminal enterprises to work
with street gangs, as their cooperation increases both
their pro.ts and the extent of the criminal activity.22 Asianbased
OC groups are often involved in multiple criminal
activities.23 This includes drug traf.cking, credit card fraud,
illegal gaming, and money laundering.24 However, violence
remains a de.ning characteristic of these organizations.25
Additionally, these groups are involved in human traf.cking
and migrant smuggling.26
Cooperation between Asian street gangs and more
sophisticated Asian OC groups is widespread. Asian OC
groups and street gangs work with non-Asian groups,
usually for the purposes of drug traf.cking.
Russian Organized Crime
Over 24 percent of law enforcement of.cials indicated
that gangs were associated with Russian organized crime
in their jurisdictions. According to the Middle Atlantic-
Great Lakes Organized Crime Law Enforcement Network
(MAGLOCLEN), “Unlike most organized crime groups,
post-Soviet criminals do not discriminate along ethnic lines
and focus solely on illicit pro.ts.”27 Russian groups have
been associated with “Asian, Colombian, Dominican,
La Cosa Nostra, outlaw motorcycle gangs, street gangs,
and the YACS [Yugoslavian, Albanian, Croatian, and
Serbian crime groups].”28
Russian OC groups may coordinate with local gangs
(Russian or non-Russian) to conduct low-level criminal
activities in which they do not want to heavily involve
themselves. For example, law enforcement intelligence
indicates Russian OC groups have been associated with
the Crips in California for the purpose of fencing stolen
goods.
It is possible that law enforcement of.cials have identi.ed
as Russian OC groups those that are more accurately
described as Russian street gangs.
Many groups from the former Soviet Union consisting
of younger immigrants have formed gangs in the United
States that are equivalent to relatively small, local street
gangs. These gangs generally do not engage in major
criminal enterprises but partake in low-level criminal
activities. These gang-type groups are made up of the
individuals who are most often encountered by U.S. law
enforcement, as opposed to higher-level OC .gures.29
GANGS AND TECHNOLOGY
Gangs
have kept
pace with
advancing
technology
and are
utilizing
new tools to
communicate
with each
other,
facilitate
criminal activity, and avoid detection by law enforcement.
Approximately 45 percent of respondents to the 2005
National Gang Threat Assessment reported gangs
using technology in the commission of crimes. Although
gangs have used technology in the form of computers,
the Internet, and cellular phones in the past, they are
constantly expanding their capabilities as new technology
becomes available and affordable and as young people
pro.cient with emerging technology join gangs.
Cell Phones
The most frequently reported use of technology in the
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment was that of cell
phones with the walkie-talkie or push-to-talk function, such
as Nextel phones. Investigators reported that gangs use
this technology because they believe it is untraceable or
not subject to wiretaps. Walkie-talkie cell phones enable
Type of Organized Crime %21
Mexican Drug Organizations 78.4
Asian Organized Crime 28.4
Russian/Central/East European Organized Crime 24.1
Colombian Drug Organizations 16.4
Dominican Drug Organizations 12.9
Middle-Eastern Organized Crime 6.9
La Cosa Nostra Organized Crime 6.9
Italian Organized Crime 6.0
Nigerian Organized Crime 4.3
Albanian Organized Crime 3.4
Other 11
Table 3. Percentage of Agencies Reporting Association
Between Gangs and Organized Crime Entities (by Type
of Organization)
3
gang members to readily alert one another of the presence
of law enforcement or rival gang members. Furthermore,
gang members also use pay-as-you-go cell phones and
call forwarding
to insulate
themselves from
law enforcement.
In addition to
walkie-talkie
cell phones,
gangs also use
police scanners,
surveillance
equipment,
and equipment
for detecting
microphones or
bugs. They use
these tools to insulate their criminal activity and to impede
law enforcement investigations.
Computers
Law enforcement respondents also report emerging
trends in the use of computers and the Internet. Recent
information indicates that gangs are using computers to
produce fraudulent checks and counterfeit currency and
to develop and maintain databases of gang and drug
activity. Gangs use laptops, personal digital assistants,
and personal computers to produce materials and maintain
records of their own criminal enterprises. Additionally,
gangs are now using the Internet to track court proceedings
and identify witnesses. Using information and public
records on legal proceedings, gangs are identifying and
exploiting witnesses through intimidation and violence.
Internet
The Internet is
often used for
soliciting sexual
acts for money in
the form of Internet
prostitution and
Internet gaming in
the form of online
video games.
According to law
enforcement
respondents,
these games have
led to physical
confrontations between participating gang members. The
Internet provides a venue for the sale of gang-related
music, clothing, and other gang paraphernalia. Intelligence
also indicates that gangs are becoming more involved in
the pirating of movies and music via the Internet. This
lucrative criminal industry does not require a great deal
of technical equipment or knowledge, and gangs can
allegedly make more money copying .lms than selling
drugs.30
Gangs continue to use Web sites to notify members of
meetings and event dates. Rural and suburban gangs use
Web sites to
disseminate
information
about the
activities
of urban
gangs and to
emulate their
behavior.
These sites
have also
been used
by gangs
to advocate political platforms. Web sites often include
photos of members, tattoos, and gang hand signs. Sites
may also have bulletin boards, message boards, or chat
rooms where members can post messages or “shoutouts”
to identify cliques or chapters of the gang in various
cities. Many of these sites are now becoming passwordprotected,
members-only sites. However, it is important to
note that Web sites may contain false information intended
to mislead other gangs and law enforcement. There is no
documentation quantifying the existence of these sites or
the types of information they contain.
Survey respondents stated that gangs use the Internet to
steal victims’ personal information and to perpetrate theft or
fraud, as in the case of identity theft. This can be effected
using a number of electronic methods, including the use
of Trojans (or backdoors) that give the thieves unlimited
access to the information on the victim’s computer or e-mail
scams that pose as requests from a seemingly legitimate
company asking victims to verify personal information or
account details. Gangs may even be able to access other
information the victims have shared on the Internet.31
Law enforcement respondents to the 2005 National Gang
Threat Assessment noted that Asian gangs are highly
involved in these high-tech crimes.
4
predominantly Muslim and Sikh membership, and East-
African gangsters possibly living with Iranian nationals.
Terrorist Recruitment in Prisons
Despite the lack of documented connections between
gangs and
terrorist groups,
the potential
for such
associations is
well established.
Previously
documented
associations
(both known
and suspected)
between
American gangs
and international
terrorists include
the association
between El
Rukns (also
known as the Black P Stone Nation) and the government
of Libya in 1986 and the potential connection between the
Latin Kings and the Armed Forces of National Liberation.
Prison gangs seem to be particularly susceptible to
terrorism recruitment.
PRISON GANGS
By the middle of 2003, the number of persons incarcerated
in prisons and jails across the United States was
2,078,570.33 In addition, 4,073,987 persons were on
probation and 774,588 were on parole at the end of 2003.34
According to these figures, one in every 32 adult persons
in the United States is incarcerated or on probation or
parole.35 This is underscored by the fact that within the
federal prison system, it is estimated that at least 11.7
percent of the inmate population is involved in gang-related
activity.36 In state prisons this portion of the population is
13.4 percent, and in jails it is 15.6 percent.37
Prison gangs pose a signi.cant threat to correctional
of.cials across the country. The rise of gang crime and
the incarceration of thousands of gang members during
the 1980s perpetuated the issue of gang membership in
prisons.38 Inmate gangs thrive on violence, extortion, and
a range of illicit activity involving drugs, gambling, and
Internet activities related to identity theft and fraud are
expected to broaden, as exempli.ed by at least one British
gang believed to be launching phishing attacks. These
attacks are perpetrated when criminals lure victims to fake
Web sites that look like those of legitimate organizations.
They attempt to persuade people to enter their passwords
and credit card information, which can then be exploited.32
Advances in technology and their future exploitation
by gang members will create new challenges for law
enforcement. However, collaboration and the sharing of
intelligence will enable agencies across the country to stay
one step ahead of gangs and their criminal activity.
GANGS AND TERRORIST
ORGANIZATIONS
Only 5.7 percent of law enforcement of.cials surveyed
indicated that gangs were associated with any domestic
or international terrorist organizations or extremist groups
within their jurisdictions. Most of those groups associated
with terrorist organizations or extremist groups were from
the Western region.
Domestic Terrorist Groups
The majority of those who indicated associations identi.ed
connections to domestic rather than international terrorist
groups. Of the domestic terrorist groups identi.ed, most
were white-supremacist groups, including the following:
International Terrorist Groups
Despite their vigilance in looking for associations between
gangs and international terrorist groups in the post-
9/11 environment, few investigators have identi.ed any
associations in their jurisdictions, and those who have,
describe the connections in terms of speculation supported
by little evidence. According to investigators, suspected
associations focused on credit card fraud and sales of
drugs, weapons, and false identi.cation.
A small number of investigators observed conditions that
could potentially lead to terrorism connections, including
the presence of Afghan and Indian street gangs, gangs with
• Aryan Resistance • Neo-Confederates
• Hammerskins • Neo-Nazi
• Ku Klux Klan • National Socialist Movement
• Militia groups • Skinheads
• National Alliance • Soldiers of Aryan Culture
5
prostitution.39 The need of inmates to form associations
for self-protection creates an environment ripe for
recruiting and controlling gang members. Compounding
this problem, many inmates are incarcerated near their
communities, where gang members continue to have
signi.cant
in.uence.40
Frequently,
prison gang
members
continue to
af.liate with
one another
and commit
criminal
acts once
released into the community.41
While little information about the presence and
composition of gangs in prisons is available, a 2002 survey
commissioned by the National Major Gang Task Force
revealed details about gangs and security threat groups
(STGs) in the nation’s prisons and jails.42
• Prison and jail of.cials identi.ed more than 1,600 STGs,
comprising 113,627 inmates in their jurisdictions.
• An average of 13.4 percent of all inmates per prison
system and 15.6 percent of all inmates per jail system
were estimated to be involved in STGs.
• The median number of inmates estimated to be
involved in STGs per prison and jail systems was 1,575
and 300, respectively.
• The most frequently identi.ed STGs in both prison and
jail settings included the Crips, Bloods, Gangster
Disciples, Latin Kings, and Aryan Brotherhood. The
Mexican Ma.a, La Nuestra Familia, the Black Guerilla
Family, and the Texas Syndicate have also been
identi.ed in earlier studies as dominant prison gangs.43
• Both prisons and jails reported substantially more
STG-related incidents of violence against inmates than
against staff members. Likewise, in both prisons and
jails, approximately one-third of all violent incidents were
STG-related, whether directed against staff or inmates.
• State correctional systems in California, Colorado,
New Jersey, Texas, and Wisconsin, as well as in the
Federal Bureau of Prisons, have the highest number
of STG-involved inmates; correctional systems in
Hawaii, New Mexico, and Wisconsin have the highest
percentage of STG-involved inmates.
• The prisons and jails surveyed reported 11 STG-related
homicides for 2001—only one of which was reported by
a jail.
• Many STG inmates additionally have ties to terrorist
groups, and those who do not may be susceptible to
recruitment by terrorists. For example, 27 STG inmates
at the Administrative Maximum Security Prison in
Florence, Colorado, represent al Qaeda, the Islamic
Resistance Movement (HAMAS), and the Palestinian
Liberation Organization. Of these STG inmates, 18 have
formal terrorist training.44
Incarcerating gang members has done little to disrupt
their activities and, in many ways, has augmented their
growth and power inside prisons. High-ranking gang
members exert increased control and discipline over their
street gangs from prison. Prison gangs have hierarchical
structures based on power and ranks and are organized
to survive leadership changes. This structure insulates
gang leaders from direct involvement in criminal activity
and, ultimately, prosecution.45 Many inmates who have
not been previously exposed to gangs are recruited
and, after serving their sentences, allied with the gang
outside the prison walls.46 The following are reports of
the criminal activity committed by incarcerated gang
members:
• The Mexican Ma.a (La Eme) controls many of the
Hispanic gangs in southern California by imposing a
street tax on drug sales.
• A Latin Kings leader responsible for an entire network of
gang members across Illinois used his cell phone to
organize an elaborate drug ring and order hits. He was
indicted in 1997 for running the drug-dealing operation
from behind prison walls.47 Latin Kings members are
known for their control over correctional of.cers and
routinely order hits on those who fail to cooperate with
them.
• Gangster Disciples leader Larry Hoover was convicted of
running—from prison—a $100 million-per-year drug
operation that stretched across 35 states. Much of the
gang’s criminal enterprise is coordinated from behind
bars.
Many community and law enforcement of.cials mistakenly
believe that when a gang member is incarcerated, the
threat disappears. In reality, incarcerated gang members
often use the prison environment to recruit other members
and perpetuate their criminal enterprise. Furthermore, a
large percentage of incarcerated gang members will be
6
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
released into the community to continue their criminal
activities. Often the return of gang members to the
community results in increases in violent crime and drug
traf.cking in the area.48
Attempts made by criminal justice professionals to disrupt
prison gangs by transferring their leaders and dangerous
members to other prison systems have had little impact.
Gang members who are moved to new institutions with
few or no gang members will often form new gangs, and
gangs that lose a leader will likely generate a new one.49 In
addition, as family members move near prisons to provide
support for incarcerated relatives, gang associates are able
to expand their jurisdictions and maintain criminal ties with
the incarcerated member through family liaisons.
HISPANIC GANGS
Hispanic gangs are not a new phenomenon in the United
States; however, they have increasingly become a
concern for law enforcement agencies in recent years.
The Hispanic population in the United States in 2003 was
reported to be 39.9 million, an increase of 13 percent from
the 2000 census.50 As a result of the continuous growth
in the Hispanic population throughout the United States,
Hispanic gang membership is also increasing. The 2001
National Youth Gang Survey reported that 49 percent of
all gang members were Hispanic/Latino, an increase of 2
percent from 1999 survey results.51,52 As Hispanic men and
women migrate, both legally and illegally, to rural and urban
areas in the United States, they are confronted by language
challenges, limited employment options, and victimization
by gangs already operating in the area. Faced with these
obstacles, gang membership is often viewed as a viable
option.
As Hispanic gang membership rises throughout the United
States, law enforcement pays it more attention. More gang
members are being arrested than ever before. Those
who enter the prison system often join
together, creating an even stronger entity.
Prison of.cials report that Hispanic gangs
that may have been rivals on the street
are aligned in the prisons to combat other
Hispanic or non-Latino gangs. Some
of the strongest Hispanic prison gangs
are the Mexican Ma.a and the Texas
Syndicate.
Agencies Reporting
Gang Presence
Agencies Reporting
Moderate to High Activity
Gang N % N %
Sur 13 241 53.0 176 39.5
Latin Kings 204 44.8 76 16.7
MS-13 145 31.9 55 12.1
18th Street 143 31.4 54 11.8
Norteños 125 27.5 64 14.5
La Raza 77 16.9 29 6.4
Table 4. Hispanic Gang Presence
Another aspect of Hispanic gang membership impacting
law enforcement efforts concerns implications rising
from illegal immigrant arrests and deportation. Deported
individuals often maintain their ties to gangs in the United
States, resulting in the extension of criminal enterprises
into other countries. Hispanic gang members .nd it easier
to access drugs and weapons in their home countries and
courier the items back to the United States rather than to
conduct their operations within the United States. U.S.
currency used to pay for drugs and weapons is easily
exchanged and has a much higher value in many foreign
countries.
In addition, gangs identi.ed and targeted by law
enforcement may migrate to areas where law enforcement
is unfamiliar with them and they are freer to continue their
criminal activity. Hispanic gang members take advantage
of the language and cultural obstacles posed to law
enforcement in areas where there has not been a very
large Hispanic population in the past.
The following sections de.ne and describe some of the
most recent issues affecting law enforcement efforts to
identify and dismantle Hispanic gangs.
Prominent Hispanic Gangs
Law enforcement agencies were asked to report the
presence of several Hispanic gangs in their region, and
the results are displayed in Table 4. Of the reporting
agencies, more than 50 percent indicated that Los Sureños
(Sur 13) was present in their region. Nearly 40 percent of
agencies reported moderate to high Sur 13 gang activity.
The presence of Sur 13 was reported in 87.8 percent of
jurisdictions reporting in the Western region. Approximately
45 percent of law enforcement agencies also reported the
presence of the Latin Kings, with 16.7 percent indicating
moderate or high gang activity.
7
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
The identi.cation and differentiation of Hispanic street
gangs pose obstacles for law enforcement across the
nation. These prominent street gangs are described brie.y
below.
Sur 13
During the 1980s, California street gangs were divided
into Sureños (Southerners) and Norteños (Northerners)—
umbrella terms for Hispanic street gangs in California.
These terms are used to distinguish whether the gang is
from the northern or southern part of the state. Southern
gangs are closely associated with the Mexican Ma.a and
thus often use the number 13 in their gangs and tagging, as
M is the 13th letter of the alphabet.
As various southern California gang members migrated
from the state, many began to unite under the name
Sureño. Additionally, as a result of the gang’s close
connection to the Mexican Ma.a, the group retained the
use of the number 13 in its name. Thus, as gang members
began to appear in the Southwest and on the East Coast,
they referred to themselves as both Sur 13 and
Los Sureños.
It is important to note that hundreds of Hispanic gangs
identify with the Sureño philosophy and use the number
13 as part of their gang identi.ers. The presence of the
number 13 does not necessarily indicate af.liation with the
Mexican Ma.a. Claiming Sureño merely indicates that the
gang resides or originated in southern California; in some
cases the gang may not be from southern California but
simply identi.es with the Sureño gang style. Many Sureño
gangs are rivals of each other. For example, Florencia 13
is a Sureño gang but is an enemy of MS-13 in some areas.
Northern California street gangs are considered Norteños
and use the number 14, as N is the 14th letter of the
alphabet. Norteño gangs are rivals of Sureño gangs, but
just as Sureño gangs are not all aligned with each other,
Norteño gangs are not necessarily aligned with other
Norteños.
California is rede.ning the ways that law enforcement
traditionally considers Norteño and Sureño alliances and
rivalries. After observing increasing numbers of Sureño
gangs from southern California migrating to northern
California, law enforcement noted the following trends:
• Local northern California gangs, typically in con.ict with
each other over drug traf.cking and territorial issues, are
now collaborating in order to resist the Sureño gangs
migrating from the south.
• The Sureños migrating from the south are con.icting
with their counterparts who reside in northern California
because they believe they are more like Norteños than
Sureños.
• Hispanic gangs in northern California are negotiating with
an outlaw motorcycle gang to acquire drugs in exchange
for allegiance against another OMG, which has aligned
with southern Hispanic gangs.
In light of these trends, law enforcement must recognize
that the terms norteños and sureños are no longer
suf.cient to describe California street gangs. When
documenting gang members in their local areas, law
enforcement must deliberately note not only an individual’s
gang af.liation but also where the individual is from and the
gang’s local allies and rivals.
Sur 13 was
reported to
be present in
every region
and in 35
states across
the country.
More than
50 percent
of law
enforcement respondents indicated the presence of Sur 13
in their jurisdictions, with 39.5 percent of agencies reporting
moderate to high activity. It must be noted that there are no
national Los Sureños or Sur 13 hierarchical gangs. While
there may be loose connection among some gangs using
the Los Sureños or Sur 13 name, most of these gangs
are not connected to one another. They simply may have
latched onto the name for their local group from media
sources or gang-connected relatives. They may not even
be aware of other Sureños.
Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13)
MS-13, a primarily El Salvadoran street gang, originated
in Los Angeles in the 1980s. Since then, the gang has
successfully migrated from southern California to the
East Coast, establishing a signi.cant presence in Virginia,
Maryland, North Carolina, and New York. MS-13 formed
in the Rampart area of Los Angeles, which was heavily
populated by Mexican-American gangs. After being
constantly victimized by the dominant Mexican gangs,
El Salvadoran immigrants banded together for protection,
thus enlarging their membership and force. The group
called itself Mara Salvatrucha, or MS, and as it grew in
size, it aligned with the Mexican Ma.a under the
8
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
Los Sureños umbrella. Once aligned with the Mexican
Ma.a, the group incorporated the number 13 in its name.
MS-13, while maintaining independent leadership and
organization, remains af.liated with the Mexican Ma.a.
The presence of MS-13 was reported in the jurisdictions of
145 law enforcement agencies across the country, although
only 12.1 percent of respondents indicated that this gang
had moderate to high activity. MS-13 was present in 31
states.
18th Street
18th Street, formed in the 1960s, is a Hispanic gang
composed of individuals with mixed racial backgrounds.53
One of the largest and oldest Hispanic gangs, 18th Street’s
acceptance of immigrants and its lack of racial barriers
enabled this group to grow and expand substantially.54
Originating in Los Angeles, the gang has migrated up the
West Coast and over the Midwest to the East Coast.55
18th Street is calculated in its expansion and recruitment,
reportedly recruiting in elementary and middle schools.56
It is also known to have counterparts in Mexico and
throughout Central America. 18th Street is known to
maintain ties with the Mexican Ma.a on the West Coast
and to have rivalries with MS-13.57
Law enforcement of.cials reported activity by 18th Street
in 31.4 percent of jurisdictions. Regionally, while only 22
percent of reporting agencies in the Northeast indicated the
presence of 18th Street, 60.9 percent of law enforcement
respondents from the West Coast reported its presence.
Latin Kings
The Latin Kings, also known as the Almighty Latin King
Nation
(ALKN),
formed in
Chicago in
the mid-
1960s. In
the 1980s,
after a
lengthy
power
struggle
with
members of
the Chicago
faction, the Connecticut- and New York-based Latin
Kings chapters separated and formed the Almighty Latin
Charter Nation and the Almighty Latin King and Queen
Nation (ALKQN), respectively. Both regional factions have
operated autonomously from the Chicago faction and abide
by their own constitutions. State contingencies generally
exercise allegiance to one of these three major factions.
Gang membership consists predominately of Puerto Rican
males, although individuals of other ethnicities—including
Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and South American—are
allowed to become members. The Latin Kings have
regional chapters across the Midwest, the East Coast, the
central states, Texas, and California, with an estimated
25,000 to 50,000 members nationwide and nearly 20,000
members residing within Chicago alone. In particular,
the New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut regions are
hotbeds for Latin Kings activity, including drug-related crime
and bitter gang turf wars.
Nearly half of reporting agencies—44.8 percent—
documented the presence of the Latin Kings in their
jurisdictions. Seventy percent of law enforcement
respondents in the Northeast reported the presence of
the Latin Kings, while 56.9 percent of respondents in the
Midwest reported their presence.
Migration of Sureños Into the
Southwestern United States
Sureño gang members are migrating out of California into
the southwestern part of the United States and have been
well documented in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas.
Information suggests that members of Sureño street
gangs are migrating out of California as a result of prison
transfers and to avoid the state’s tough three-strikes laws.
Once outside California, the members assimilate under
the name Sureños or Sur 13. While some gangs continue
to pay taxes to the Mexican Ma.a and assist in its drug
distribution, others cut ties to California and operate as a
local gang. It is not uncommon for gangs in these other
states to form using the name Sureños—when they have
no ties to California other than an af.nity for the name—so
they can bask under the reputation of the Sureños style.
The migration of Sureño gangs from California poses a
threat in terms of drug traf.cking and violence because of
their extensive criminal networks. These networks not only
facilitate the expansion of drug-traf.cking enterprises, they
also allow gangs to easily replace local leaders in the event
of arrest or death. Law enforcement should closely monitor
their criminal activity and their contact with gang members
in California, both on the street and in correctional
institutions.
9
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
Identifying and Distinguishing Hispanic
Gangs
The ability to identify and distinguish Hispanic gangs and
cliques creates a unique challenge for law enforcement;
however, it is essential for anticipating criminal activity
and rivalries as well as for preventing gang expansion and
recruitment.
For example, while Sur 13 and MS-13 street gangs use
similar identi.ers in their tags and tattoos, the gangs differ
greatly in composition, typical modus operandi, and allies
and rivals. In order to effectively target and dismantle
violent criminal enterprises, law enforcement of.cials must
be aware of the subtle differences between these groups.
Gang Coordination and Alliances
Recent information suggests that law enforcement
of.cials are seeing an increased effort on the part of some
Hispanic gangs to organize their members into a criminal
enterprise. The different ALKQN cliques in the New York
area came together several years ago under one leader in
New York and attempted to align with one of their largest
rivals, the Bloods. More recently, information gleaned by
law enforcement indicates that MS-13 clique leaders from
the United States and Central America have been holding
meetings in an attempt to coordinate all MS-13 members
under one leadership umbrella. There has also been
some speculation that MS-13 leaders would like to bring
18th Street and MS-13 together to become the strongest
Hispanic gang in Central America and the United States.
Recent violence occurring between MS-13 and 18th Street
and within the gangs themselves in several jurisdictions
indicates that attempts to align the two gangs have not yet
been successful.
Although some Hispanic gangs have developed extensive
networks, most Hispanic gangs are not coordinated.
Hispanic gang behavior in one jurisdiction may not carry
over to another. Members adapt to the area in which they
operate, and this may differ from location to location.
Foreign Law Enforcement Efforts to
Combat Gangs
Hispanic gangs have also become the focus of numerous
law enforcement efforts abroad. In Central America,
approximately 30,000 gang members, particularly in
Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala, are being
targeted for a major law enforcement crackdown. Many
of these members are af.liated with MS-13 and 18th
Street, two of the most prominent gangs in Central and
North America. In August 2003, Honduras implemented
anti-gang laws, making it illegal to participate in a gang
formed to perpetuate criminal activity. The penalty carries
a maximum prison sentence of 12 years. El Salvador
declared a state of emergency, enacting an anti-gang
initiative in July 2003. While similar legislation is pending
enactment in Guatemala, all three countries have initiated
anti-gang operations.
As a result of the Central-American anti-gang initiatives, the
United States may become fertile ground for international
gangs .eeing newly established or reformed anti-gang
laws. While the United States is aggressive in deporting
convicted gang members of international origin, gang
members are reportedly using the Bureau of Immigration
and Customs Enforcement’s Temporary Protective Status
(TPS) to remain in the United States and avoid gang
prosecution in Central America.
TPS was established for Central-American nationals as a
result of the natural disasters occurring in Honduras and
El Salvador. The status allows migrants from these two
areas to remain in the United States for a designated
period of time and apply for work. Under TPS, a migrant
can only be deported if convicted of a felony or more than
one misdemeanor.
El Salvadoran nationals were recently granted a TPS
extension until March 2005, while the extended TPS for
Honduran nationals is scheduled to end in January 2005.
FEMALE GANGS
Young women continue to take active roles in gangs.
Although the number of female gangs is increasing, street
gangs are still predominately made up of males. The 2000
National Youth Gang Survey revealed that only 6 percent
of the nation’s gang members were female.58 All-female
gangs continue to be an anomaly, as most female gang
members tend to be af.liated with male gangs. In fact,
2000 National Youth Gang Survey respondents reported
that 39 percent of all youth gangs had female members;
however, 82 percent of respondents reported that none
of the gangs in their jurisdictions were predominately
composed of females.59
The responsibilities of females in gangs are evolving.
While they continue to assume the traditionally subordinate
functions of providing emotional, physical, and sexual
support to male gang members, females are taking more
active roles in gangs, as some female gang members
have graduated from af.liate status to membership.
10
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
This elevation in status also involves an elevation in
risk. Females now assist in the movement of drugs and
weapons for male gang members and gather intelligence
from rival gangs.60 Others are committing drug sales,
robberies, assaults, and drive-by shootings on behalf of
male gang members. Respondents to the 2005 National
Gang Threat Assessment Survey reported that female gang
members in their jurisdictions most often:
• Assist male gang members in committing crimes;
• Carry drugs and weapons and provide safe houses for
contraband;
• Commit assaults and larcenies and intimidate other
female students in schools;
• Engage in prostitution; and
• Engage in drug sales, vandalism, and credit card and
identity theft.
Although female gang members can be just as violent as
their male counterparts, violence committed by female
gang members is still relatively low compared to that of
male gang members. One Chicago-based study found
that although females in gangs may .ght as much as
males, they use weapons less frequently and are less likely
to kill.61 A large number of .ghts and assaults involving
female gang members occur within the school setting.
Some females commit violent crimes to gain status and
prove themselves worthy of the gang. However, male gang
members rarely grant women the same power or status
as men in the gang. There have also been numerous
reports of females being sexually exploited by males within
the gang. Female gang members are often “sexed in”
(rather than “jumped in”) to the gang, an initiation ritual
that involves sex with several gang members, often for an
extended period of time.62
Although female gang membership in male-dominated
gangs is increasing, the prevalence of predominately
female gangs continues to be a rare phenomenon. The
most recent data from the 2005 National Gang Threat
Assessment reveals that 10 percent of law enforcement
agencies are now reporting exclusively female gangs.
Female gang members are generally more inclined to
commit property crimes and drug offenses, and most of
their assaults and .ghts occur within a school setting and
without weapons. Although female gang members commit
relatively little violent crime, violence among girls in gangs
is on the rise, and law enforcement should be concerned
about their increasing brutality and their roles as weapons
carriers. Traditionally, female gangs have received less
attention from researchers and law enforcement, and most
efforts have focused on intervention programs designed to
provide an alternate refuge for girls attempting to escape
abusive environments. Furthermore, law enforcement
of.cials are less likely to recognize or stop female
gang members, and they have experienced dif.culty in
identifying female involvement in gang-related activity.
GANGS AND
INDIAN COUNTRY
The consistent growth of the gang subculture as a national
phenomenon has touched communities of every size
across the country. While still perceived by some to be
an urban-based social problem, gang activity has steadily
affected parts of the country that were once believed to be
immune from this behavior. Such is the case with Indian
Country and the emergence of the gang subculture not
only on reservations across the country but among certain
urban-based Native Americans as well.
Although most youth in Indian Country are not involved
in gang activity, those who are involved tend to be young,
primarily between the ages of 12 and 24. These youth
become involved in gangs either by connecting to existing
gang structures or by starting their own gang sets. Gang
behavior is more about group cohesiveness, predatory
activities, and a party atmosphere than it is about organized
criminal behavior with a pro.t motive.
Most gangs in Indian Country are small and autonomous.
Structurally, leadership tends to be decentralized, with
collective decision making the common theme. Although
some of these gangs will claim turf, gang alignment tends
to revolve around which gang is perceived to be the most
in.uential at any given time.
Native-American gangs will often take on the characteristics
of urban street gangs in terms of signs, symbols, and other
forms of gang representation. While some gangs identify
themselves by names unique to the Indian culture or a
speci.c area (such as Shanob Mob, Nomadz, Wild Boyz,
Native Mob, Native Outlawz, and Dark Side Family), others
align themselves with nationally recognized gangs (such as
Indian Bloods, Native Gangster Disciples, Indian Gangster
Disciples, Native Mob Vice Lords, Igloo Housing Crips,
and Insane Cobra Folk Nation). This national af.liation,
often evidenced by body markings, is not indicative of
a relationship between Native-American gangs and
11
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
other gang structures; rather, it is utilized for purposes of
notoriety and intimidation.
Most gang crimes occurring in Indian Country are propertybased,
such as graf.ti and vandalism; however, the extent
of violent crime connected to gang activity is increasing.63
Over the past decade, Indian reservations across the
country have increasingly reported escalating levels of
gang violence, as well as drug usage and distribution.
Although not all of the violence is connected to gang
activity, gangs are considered one of the factors in the
escalating violence.
When studying the growth of gangs in Indian Country,
it is essential to consider the illicit drug trade. The
remote nature of many reservations is conducive to the
proliferation of methamphetamine labs, the growth of
marijuana, and the distribution of a wide variety of illegal
substances. The proximity of many reservations to the
Mexican border also provides easy access to these drugs,
a fact only exacerbated by the extent of alcohol and drug
abuse already occurring in many parts of Indian Country.
Female involvement in Indian-Country gangs is another
important consideration. Twenty percent of females are
engaged in some level of gang activity, compared to the
national rate of 6 percent for female gang involvement.64
The signi.cance of female involvement must not be
underestimated, as gang-involved females are allowing
themselves to be physically and sexually abused and will
sometimes escalate their own behavior to prove they can
be as violent or antisocial as their male counterparts.
Gang activity among Native Americans in prison is
increasing due to the general in.uence of gang activity
in correctional facilities as well as the tendency for some
Native-American gang members to feel a sense of pride
in serving time. The rate of prison incarceration per capita
among Native Americans is approximately 38 percent
higher than the national rate, and the number of youth in
custody in the Federal Bureau of Prisons has increased
50 percent since 1994.65 This trend may account for
the emergence of Native-American prison gangs, such
as Indian Brotherhood, Red Brotherhood, Indian Posse,
Warlords, Bear Paw Warrior Society, and similar structures.
Native-American gang members released from these
facilities often return to their communities and bring the
gang lifestyle with them, contributing to the growth of the
gang problem.
The absence of an aggressive gang-prosecution initiative
in Indian Country has allowed gang activity to .ourish
and grow. Law enforcement in Indian Country lacks a
comprehensive and sustained law enforcement model that
emphasizes identi.cation of active gang members and
directed enforcement activity to deal with the behavior. A
lack of gang intelligence, including gang trends, membership
numbers, and alliances and rivalries, places law enforcement
of.cials at a disadvantage, as they are unable to have
a clear understanding of the depth of the gang problem.
Additionally, many Native-American youth involved in gang-
and drug-related crime perceive that little or no retribution for
criminal behavior will occur at the tribal court level.
An increasing number of tribes have recognized the need to
curb the growth of the gang problem over the past several
years, despite the historic denial of the presence of gangs
in Indian Country. Efforts have been made to educate tribal
authorities and educators in gang recognition and effective
resource allocation. Finally, some tribes are returning to
the traditional practice of banishment as a means of dealing
with gang and criminal behavior. Although used by only
a handful of tribes across the country, the practice is an
alternative available to tribes as they seek solutions to deal
with the growing problem of gang activity.
OUTLAW MOTORCYCLE
GANGS
Outlaw motorcycle gangs have been in existence for
more than 50 years. The growth of OMGs and their
increasing criminal endeavors have made them the
subject of numerous criminal investigations by law
enforcement. These criminal activities include, but are
not limited to, murder, assault, kidnapping, prostitution,
money laundering, weapons traf.cking, motorcycle and
motorcycle-parts theft, intimidation, extortion, arson, and
the production, smuggling, transportation, and distribution
of drugs. While
drug traf.cking
is still the
primary source
of income for
OMGs, the
other criminal
activities
represent an
increasing
source of
funds.
Each of the major OMGs—the Hells Angels, Bandidos,
Outlaws, and Pagans—has been identi.ed as involved in
12
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
murder, bombings, extortion, arson, and assault. The
Hells Angels, Bandidos, and Outlaws have also been
involved in weapons traf.cking, prostitution, money
laundering, explosives violations, motorcycle and
motorcycle-parts theft, intimidation, insurance fraud,
kidnapping, robbery, theft, stolen property, counterfeiting,
and contraband smuggling (see Table 5).
Individual club members are also involved in all types of
criminal activity apart from the activities of the club. In
some cases, the club sanctions these criminal activities,
while in other cases, the criminal activities are carried out
by individual OMG members on their own. In many cases,
individual members conduct the same type of criminal
activity conducted by the club.
While OMGs have long been involved in violence and
drugs, their ties to organized crime represent a relatively
new phenomenon. In addition to reports that OMGs are
performing some menial tasks for organized crime, there
are also indications that OMGs may be attempting to take
over many of the activities of traditional OC entities.
Drug Traf.cking
OMGs are involved in the traf.cking of multiple types
of drugs, and speci.c drug activity tends to depend on
the geographic region—that is, the distribution of drugs
in a given geographic area re.ects the preferences of
the drug consumers in that area. For example, while
marijuana is used in all parts of the country, the demand
for methamphetamine is primarily in the West, and cocaine
demand is primarily in the East. Nevertheless, OMGs as a
club and OMG members individually will generally deal in
any drug that provides a source of income.
The Hells Angels are considered primary producers
and distributors of illegal drugs within the United States.
They have been identi.ed as involved with marijuana,
methamphetamine,
cocaine, hashish, heroin,
LSD, PCP, and diverted
pharmaceuticals.67
The Bandidos have used
their worldwide network
of chapters to distribute
marijuana, cocaine,
and methamphetamine.
Frequently, the drugs
originate outside the
United States and are
smuggled into the country
via a multitude of different
methods. They cross
the border at manned
border crossings while
hidden in vehicles and
at other points along the
unprotected border. The
retail distribution of drugs
is normally handled by
hang-arounds, prospects,
and support clubs,
with Bandido members
normally distributing at
the wholesale level.68
The Outlaws are major
producers and distributors of methamphetamine, although
they are also involved in the transportation and distribution
of marijuana, cocaine, MDMA, and prescription drugs.
Their involvement in drugs has been long-standing, and
two of their former international presidents, Henry Bowman
Criminal Activities Hells Angels Bandidos Outlaws Pagans
Drugs
Production x x x
Smuggling x x x
Transportation x x x
Distribution x x x x
Weapons Traf.cking x x x
Murder x x x x
Prostitution x x x
Money Laundering x x x
Explosives Violation x x x
Bombings x x x x
Motorcycle and
Motorcycle-Parts Theft
x x x
Intimidation x x x
Extortion x x x x
Arson x x x x
Assault x x x x
Insurance Fraud x x x
Kidnapping x x x
Robbery x x x
Theft x x x
Stolen Property x x x
Counterfeiting x x x
Contraband Smuggling x x x
Table 5. Criminal Activities of OMGs66
13
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
Hells Angels Bandidos Outlaws Pagans
U.S. Chapters 62 80 67 41
Canadian Chapters 35 5 8 0
Rest of the World 121 67 59 0
Total Worldwide 218 152 134 41
Table 6. OMG Worldwide Chapters Summary71
and Frank Wheeler, were imprisoned for drug distribution,
among multiple other charges.
The Pagans are involved in the distribution of marijuana,
methamphetamine, and PCP in the United States.
Generally, they are not directly involved in the retail
distribution of drugs, preferring instead to use puppet
clubs and female associates to handle retail distribution.69
Successful law enforcement efforts against the Pagans
have reduced their drug-traf.cking activities; however, a
resurgence of drug activity by the Pagans to cover the cost
of the escalating con.ict with the Hells Angels is possible.70
Much of this increased activity would likely be carried out
by puppet clubs and newly recruited members.
Outlaw Motorcycle Gang Expansion
Violence among OMGs has escalated. In the United
States, this is largely due to the efforts of the major clubs,
particularly the Hells
Angels, to expand their
territory and establish
new clubs. Expansion
efforts involve not only
adding members to
existing clubs but also
adding chapters in
new areas. Frequently, one club attempts to move into an
area that another club claims as its territory, and con.icts
ultimately arise.
The major OMGs have been in an expansion mode for
the past several years. As of 2005, Hells Angels chapters
numbered 218—more than double the number seen in the
previous .ve years. Between 1999 and 2000, the Bandidos
more than tripled their size. Although they have only 152
chapters, their estimated membership of more than 2,000
makes them a potential threat to surpass the Hells Angels
in size. The Outlaws added 28 chapters in the United
States between 1999 and 2002. Their 1,200 members
make them third in size; however, arrests of Outlaws
members in Canada and the United States have severely
crippled the club. The Pagans are attempting to add and
retain members, but due to recent arrests and the defection
of current members, their numbers have been falling. It is
possible they may fall below the Sons of Silence, currently
ranked .fth in size in the United States.
In the ongoing turf battles between rival motorcycle clubs,
the major clubs are aligning against the Hells Angels. In
general, the Hells Angels have adversarial relationships
with the Pagans and the Mongols and clash over territory
with the Bandidos and the Outlaws. The Hells Angels were
at odds with the Outlaws as a result of recent expansion
of Outlaws into Hells Angels–controlled states, including
Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and
New York.
All of the major OMGs have puppet clubs that serve as
a recruitment source and as foot soldiers in conducting
criminal activities. The Hells Angels’ principal puppet club
is the Red Devils, the Outlaws have the Black Pistons
and the Forsaken-Few, and the Pagans have the Tribe
and the Blitzkrieg and Thunderguards (in Maryland).
The Bandidos have several support clubs, including the
Amigos, Pistoleros, LA Riders, Hombres, and Hermanos.
Another recruitment source for OMGs is former street gang
members. For example, the Mongols have been known to
recruit new members out of street gangs and have them
buy motorcycles subsequent to their OMG membership.
Recent intelligence reports from California, however,
indicate that the Mongols may be losing members due to a
“green light,” or hit, placed on them by the Mexican Ma.a.
Intelligence reports state that the Mongols are abandoning
their patches and may be returning to the street gangs from
which they were recruited.
COMMUNITY
RESPONSE TO GANGS
Community
Gangs are no longer a problem limited to major city
centers; their in.uence has contaminated the surrounding
suburban areas and spread to rural communities. The
2002 National Youth Gang Survey estimates that there
were approximately 731,500 gang members and 21,500
gangs in the United States in 2002.72 Overall, all cities with
a population of 250,000 or more and 87 percent of cities
with a population between 100,000 and 249,999 reported
youth gang problems.73 As gangs migrate, they bring with
them the violence, intimidation, and crime associated with
their lifestyle. For this reason, gangs are a problem not
only for law enforcement, but for parents, educators, youth,
and concerned community members as well.
14
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
Unfortunately, not all communities are willing to
acknowledge gang problems when they exist for fear that
it will re.ect poorly on the community or city as a whole.
Approximately 31 percent of law enforcement of.cials
surveyed reported that their communities either denied
the problem, had no response, or expressed no interest in
it. Several of.cials added that their communities did not
respond to the gang problem until high-pro.le gang-related
incidents and homicides escalated.
Although schools were often singled out as the most
frequent institutions denying gang problems, they were
also the primary institutions offering gang-prevention or
intervention programs in communities addressing the
problem. Of the law enforcement of.cials surveyed,
approximately 69 percent reported a positive response
from the community regarding gangs. The most frequent
response by the community was the implementation
of a gang prevention or intervention program. Several
programs were mentioned multiple times in responses
to the 2005 National Gang Threat Assessment Survey,
including Gang Resistance Education And Training, Drug
Abuse Resistance Education, and Gang Prevention/
Intervention Through Targeted Outreach, sponsored by the
Boys & Girls Clubs of America.
For those communities looking for ways to address the
gang problem, the Texas Attorney General provides three
useful recommendations:
• Acknowledge the problem. According to the Texas
Attorney General, “Denial is never bene.cial. You cannot
solve a problem until you admit that it exists.”74
• Assess the problem. Gangs are found in communities
of every size. The Texas Attorney General advises,
“Before you can begin to .nd solutions to your own
situation, you must understand it. How many gangs
and gang members are there? What kinds of gangs
are present? Do you have an emerging or chronic
gang problem? . . . To gather this information, you must
establish cooperative relations among schools, police,
and community organizations.”75
• Act on the problem. The Texas Attorney General
says to send “a clear message to the gangs in your
community that gang activity will not go unanswered.
Call neighborhood meetings for citizens concerned about
gangs. Involve the media. Clean up graf.ti—and keep it
cleaned up.”76
Communities that are interested in assessing the
extent and level of gang activity locally or in adopting a
collaborative model for key agencies to work together
to address gang violence can .nd an assessment and
implementation guide at https://www.iir.com/nygc/acgp/
default.htm.
It is essential that community members recognize gangs
as a growing threat, regardless of the size or location of
their towns and cities. Acknowledgment and action are the
only tools communities have to respond to the violence and
intimidation accompanying gangs in their migration across
the country.
Law Enforcement
Often in concert with community efforts, law enforcement
of.cials have responded to gangs in numerous ways,
ranging from school resource of.cer programs, afterschool
programs, and informational meetings in schools
and communities to “zero tolerance” enforcement policies,
aggressive patrols, and gang injunctions.
Police departments have also participated in multiagency
task forces as an effective way to combat gang violence.
Whether organized on a state, regional, or federal level, task
forces allow for immediate information sharing, increased
resources to collect and analyze gang intelligence, and
additional enforcement capacity in a speci.c region. Task
forces have allowed agencies with differing strengths to
collaborate and dismantle major gangs.
Unfortunately, due to decreases in funding and political
urgency, many gang task forces have been disbanded.
Only about half of the law enforcement of.cials surveyed
reported that their agencies currently participate in a
multiagency task force. However, many agencies reported
participation in gang investigators associations, which
hold meetings and conferences that facilitate information
sharing.
The sharing of gang intelligence is an issue of great
concern throughout all levels of law enforcement.
Usually, the most effective sharing of information takes
place informally between individual law enforcement
of.cers. The problems endemic in sharing information
among the many federal law enforcement agencies exist
to a large degree within some local law enforcement
agencies. Gang, narcotics, homicide, and other units
within municipal police departments must ensure that
intelligence is communicated department-wide. In addition,
law enforcement administrators need to recognize that the
gang problem transcends geographic borders, making it
essential that gang investigators meet regularly with their
15
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
colleagues from other jurisdictions and receive advanced
training at seminars. Because of the violent nature of gang
members, both inside prisons and in communities, the
sharing of information among criminal justice professionals
has become an issue of public safety. NAGIA strongly
recommends that all law enforcement agencies consider
membership in their local RISS center to facilitate the
sharing of gang-related intelligence through the RISS
National Gang Database, conferences, and information
sharing meetings.
The response to gangs posed by community members
and law enforcement will determine the success or failure
of a gang. Denial and neglect will foster the growth of
gangs and allow them to establish a resilient organizational
structure, making prosecution more dif.cult. It is clear that
many communities are ignoring the problem in the hopes
that it will quietly go away or bypass their region. However,
it is also clear that many communities are meeting the
challenge with prevention, intervention, and enforcement.
NORTHEASTERN REGION
General Trends
Wes Daily, President of the East Coast Gang Investigators
Association, relates the general feeling of gang
investigators across the Northeastern region when he
states:
Gangs are growing. Seldom has a day gone by
without some television, radio, or newspaper headline
referring to gang activity. With the growing population
of undocumented persons in the Northeastern region,
gangs from Mexico and Central America are increasing.
Drug dealing continues to be a main method of
generating income. Gangs are growing, reorganizing,
and joining together to form hybrid groups. The result
is that in the Northeastern region, gangs are a serious
and constant issue
that impacts all
communities.77
In the Northeast,
51 law enforcement
agencies documented
trends and patterns
in gang activity.
Connecticut,
Massachusetts,
New Hampshire,
New Jersey,
New York, and Pennsylvania were among the states that
provided insight for this regional assessment.
Over the past
.ve years, the
Northeastern
region has
seen an
increase in
gang activity.
Surveys
indicate that
over the past
.ve years,
56.8 percent of responding law enforcement agencies saw
an increase in gang activity, with 39.2 percent reporting
a signi.cant increase (see Figure 2). Within the past six
months, 41.2 percent of these agencies continued to report
increases in gang activity, with 13.7 percent reporting a
signi.cant increase.
Gang Presence and Migration
Law enforcement agencies indicate a wide-ranging scope
of gang presence in the area. While many of the gangs in
this region are largely neighborhood-based, several have
been documented as having a national af.liation.
Table 7 illustrates the large role that neighborhoodbased
drug-traf.cking groups play in gang activity in the
Northeastern region. Intelligence reporting con.rms that
many gangs in this region are either homegrown or are
local versions of national gangs, which assume the gang
name but are not connected to any national leadership or
structure. However, some nationally recognized gangs
have a strong presence in many states in the Northeast—
especially the Bloods and Latin Kings. Recent surveys
conducted by the New England State Police Information
Network (NESPIN) substantiate this information.
16
Figure 2. Presence of Gang Activity Over Time
10
20
30
40
50
Increased Significantly Increased Slightly No Change
Percentage
Within Past 6 Months Within Past 12 Months Within Past 5 Years
Increased Signi.cantly Increased Slightly No Change
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
National Gangs
MS-13
According to Wes Daily, the Northeastern region has
several top priorities with respect to gangs. With growing
numbers of undocumented persons in the region,
investigators are seeing increases in Mexican and Central-
American gangs in Connecticut, New York, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, and Delaware. One of the more prominent
gangs, MS-13 is recognized by investigators as the most
fearless.78
Intelligence indicates that in 2002, MS-13 members moved
“multikilogram quantities of powdered cocaine, crack
cocaine, and marijuana throughout the greater
New York City metropolitan area and New Jersey.”79 In
the current survey, of.cials in the Northeastern region
reported a relatively low level of activity by MS-13;
however, approximately 43 percent of of.cials in New York
and New Jersey alone reported the presence of MS-13 in
their jurisdictions, consistent with reporting that the gang is
particularly active in these states.
MS-13 has also been found to be a serious threat in
Massachusetts.80 This gang, with between 75 and 100
members in the state, has an af.nity for excessive violence
and little respect for law enforcement.81
Bloods
Wes Daily reports that the Bloods continue to grow in the
Northeastern region under several names, including United
Blood Nation (UBN) and Gangster Killer Bloods.82 The
similarity in names creates dif.culty for law enforcement
in distinguishing between the East Coast and West Coast
gangs sharing this name. Although the two versions of the
gang share a loose cultural af.nity, there is little intelligence
indicating extensive structural links between them.83 In
fact, many East Coast versions of the Bloods, including
UBN, are considered to be more structured than their
West Coast counterparts.
Intelligence reports estimate UBN membership at 5,000
members in New York City and 7,000 nationwide. In the
current survey, 26 percent of law enforcement of.cials in
the Northeast reported a moderate or high level of UBN
activity, and 40 percent of of.cials reported a moderate or
high level of Bloods activity.
Crips
The Crips have established a substantial presence in the
Northeastern region as well, partially due to the gang’s
multiethnic makeup.84 The NDIC reports that “Crip sets
obtain cocaine, heroin, and marijuana from New York
City–based Dominican criminal groups and cocaine,
heroin, marijuana, and PCP from Los Angeles–based
Crip sets.”85 In the current survey, roughly 40 percent
of law enforcement of.cials in the Northeastern region
reported moderate or high activity by the Crips, with about
30 percent more reporting low activity, consistent with
intelligence indicating Crip drug smuggling and violence
in this region. In Connecticut, law enforcement reports
a small presence of Crips, and there is no information to
indicate whether these groups are af.liated with the original
Los Angeles groups or are independent sets.86
Latin Kings
The Latin Kings are struggling to .nd and maintain
leadership following the arrest of their leader; however,
New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania are reporting
continued growth of the Latin Kings and the Chicago
in.uence.87 Approximately 40 percent of the law
Level of Gang Involvement High (%) Moderate (%) Low (%) Not Applicable/
Unknown (%)
Neighborhood-Based Drug-
Traf.cking Groups and Crews 23.5 31.4 7.8 37.3
Bloods 21.6 21.6 17.6 39.2
Latin Kings 17.6 19.6 31.4 31.4
Hells Angels (OMG) 11.8 19.6 19.6 49.1
United Blood Nation 11.8 13.7 15.7 58.9
Crips 9.8 27.5 31.4 31.4
MS-13 7.8 3.9 11.8 76.5
Pagans (OMG) 5.9 19.6 17.6 56.9
Asian Gangs 5.9 5.9 23.5 64.8
Table 7. Gang Presence in the Northeastern Region
17
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
enforcement of.cials in the current survey reported
moderate or high activity by the Latin Kings, and 30 percent
reported low activity, consistent with previous reporting.
New York and New Jersey have speci.cally been identi.ed
as having heavy Latin Kings activity, and within these
two states, approximately 86 percent of of.cials reported
the presence of the Latin Kings. NESPIN survey results
indicated that the Latin Kings in Connecticut have a
widespread presence within the state, with numbers
ranging from 40 to more than 300 active members.88 Latin
Kings members active in Maine are reportedly migrating
from areas in Massachusetts and Connecticut.89
Hells Angels
Gang intelligence indicates that in 2003 the Hells Angels
had developed several new chapters in the Mid-Atlantic
and Northeastern regions, including Virginia, Maryland, and
Pennsylvania.
These
territories were
traditionally
considered
the domain of
the Pagans
motorcycle
gang, the Hells
Angels’ rivals.
Approximately
31 percent
of of.cials
reported
moderate or
high activity
by the Hells Angels outlaw motorcycle gang in the
Northeastern region, and about 20 percent reported low
activity. Similarly, 50 percent of agencies in New York and
Pennsylvania reported some level of Hells Angels activity.
Asian Gangs
Although intelligence on Asian gangs and criminal
enterprises points to the West Coast as the “stronghold
of Asian organized crime activity,”90 it also indicates
the presence of Asian gangs in New York City and
Connecticut.91 Overall, law enforcement of.cials in the
Northeastern region reported a low level of Asian gang
activity; however, 30 percent of agencies in New York and
Connecticut indicated the presence of Asian gangs.
The gangs listed below were present in the Northeastern
region but were reported to have a low level of activity.92
Three of the gangs—Los Sureños, 18th Street, and
La Raza—are Hispanic gangs known to be active in the
Western region. The Skinheads are also primarily active
on the West Coast. The Black Gangster Disciples and
the Gangster Disciples are both native to the Midwestern
region.
The following gangs would not be expected to be active
in the Northeast, as they are primarily based in the
Midwestern and Western regions and, in fact, were not
reported to have a signi.cant presence in the Northeastern
region.93
Drug Trends
Gangs in the Northeastern region were reported to have
signi.cant involvement in the distribution of street-level
drugs, with nearly 61 percent of agencies reporting
moderate to high activity. While the level of involvement
of gangs in wholesale distribution was not as high, 25.5
percent of reporting agencies rated the level of activity as
moderate.
Each agency was also asked to document the level of gang
activity in the distribution of speci.c drugs. At least 50
percent of the reporting agencies indicated that gangs were
involved in the distribution of the following illegal narcotics:
cocaine (powdered and crack), heroin, methamphetamine,
marijuana, and MDMA. Gangs in the Northeast appear
to be most heavily involved in the distribution of crack
cocaine, powdered cocaine, heroin, and marijuana.
The Northeastern region is particularly vulnerable to
drug distribution by gangs because of the region’s
compact nature and its well-developed transportation
infrastructure.94 New York City is a primary hub for the
distribution and transportation of drugs in the region. Drugs
can be moved through the region via road, air, or sea and
readily concealed in the high volumes of transport vehicles
that move through the different cities.95
• Black Gangster Disciples • La Raza
• Gangster Disciples • Outlaws
• Skinheads • Sur 13
• 18th Street
• Almighty P Stone Nation • Norteños
• Bandidos • Texas Mexican Ma.a
• Border Brothers • Texas Syndicate
• La Nuestra Familia • Vice Lords
• Mexican Ma.a
18
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
Cocaine and heroin are readily available throughout
the region. Colombian and Dominican drug-traf.cking
organizations (DTOs) and criminal enterprises are the
primary transporters of cocaine into this region.96
New York is the largest market for cocaine in the country,
serving as a distribution center for most of the Great Lakes,
the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic, and the Southeast.97 The
Colombian and Dominican DTOs act as the wholesale
distributors of the cocaine.98 Street gangs, such as Neta,
the Latin Kings, MS-13, and the Bloods, are involved in
cocaine distribution at the retail level.99 South-American
heroin is brought into the country by Colombian DTOs.
Dominican criminal groups are the primary wholesale
dealers of heroin, and they are also the dominant distributor
at the retail level.100 Jamaicans are among the most
dominant distributors of marijuana in the region, although
no single group dominates at any distribution level.101
Street gangs are involved in much of the distribution at the
retail level.102
UBN, with approximately 5,000 members in the New York
City metropolitan area, is heavily involved in the distribution
of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana in New York City.103 While
locations in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania
remain primary distribution points, UBN has expanded
distribution into Connecticut and Massachusetts. 18th
Street has a prominent role in the distribution of cocaine,
heroin, and marijuana in New Jersey.104 MS-13 and the
Crips also have notable involvement in the drug distribution
for this region.
The NDIC 2003 National Drug Threat Survey (NDTS) found
that OMG involvement in drug distribution in the Northeast,
while notable, was lower than the involvement of street
gangs.105 Overall, 10.2 percent of agencies responding
to the 2003 NDTS reported that OMG involvement in drug
distribution in the Northeast was moderate to high.106
Methamphetamine and marijuana were the most common
drugs with which OMGs were associated in the region.
Criminal Activity
Gang-related crime and violence—especially activity
associated with drug traf.cking and distribution—are
signi.cant issues across every region of the United States.
In the Northeast, law enforcement agencies reported that
gangs were involved in more than 58.9 percent of crime in
their jurisdictions, with 31.4 percent indicating a moderate
or high involvement.
Gangs were more likely to be involved in several different
types of crime. The highest involvement of gangs in
crime occurred with vandalism and graf.ti, .rearms
possession, assault, and homicide (see Table 9). Gangs
were reported to be involved in as much as 62.7 percent of
crime associated with vandalism or graf.ti. Respondents
High Moderate Low None/Unknown
9.8%
21.6%
27.5%
41.1%
High Moderate Low None/Unknown
Figure 3. Overall Gang Involvement in Crimes
Level of Gang Involvement High (%) Moderate (%) Low (%) None/
Unknown (%)
Street Sales 39.2 21.6 17.6 17.7
Wholesale 15.7 25.5 25.5 33.3
Powdered Cocaine 29.4 23.5 25.5 21.6
Crack Cocaine 41.2 11.8 25.5 21.6
Heroin 29.4 15.7 19.6 35.3
Methamphetamine 5.9 11.8 35.3 47.0
Marijuana 33.3 23.5 11.8 31.4
MDMA 3.9 27.5 27.5 41.1
Table 8. Level of Gang Involvement in Drug Distribution (by Drug Type)
19
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
Level of Gang Involvement High (%) Moderate (%) Low (%) None/
Unknown (%)
Firearms Possession 23.5 13.7 19.6 43.2
Vandalism and Graf.ti 23.5 25.5 13.7 37.3
Felonious Assault 21.6 21.6 21.6 35.2
Homicide 15.7 11.8 21.6 51.0
Burglary 9.8 21.6 19.6 49.0
Firearms Traf.cking 9.8 19.6 17.6 52.9
Auto Theft 7.8 23.5 27.5 41.1
Intimidation and Extortion 5.9 15.7 31.4 44.0
Firearms Burglary 5.9 13.7 19.6 60.8
Table 9. Level of Gang Involvement in Crime (by Type of Crime)
indicated a high level of gang activity related to intimidation
and extortion in only 5.9 percent of cases.
The 2005 National Gang Threat Assessment attempted
to determine the impact of .rearm use in the commission
of crime by gang members. Law enforcement agencies
were asked to estimate how often gangs used .rearms
while committing speci.c crimes. More than one-third (39.2
percent) of respondents said gangs almost always used
.rearms in the commission of a homicide, and 23.5 percent
respondents said .rearms were almost always used when
the crime was felonious assault.
Overall, Northeast investigators responding to the 2005
National Gang Threat Assessment speci.cally noted the
following gang trends in their region that had an impact on
communities and law enforcement efforts:
• Increase of incidents of gang-related violence and drug
traf.cking on Indian reservations;107
• Gangs disrupting schools;108
• Community fear and witness intimidation;
• Increases in crime in smaller and more rural
communities;109
Table 10. Use of Firearms by Gang Members in the Commission of a Crime
Almost
Always (%) Sometimes (%) Almost
Never (%)
Not Applicable/
Unknown (%)
Homicide 39.2 9.8 5.9 45.1
Felonious Assault 23.5 29.4 11.8 35.2
Wholesale 19.6 27.5 15.7 37.2
Street Sales 17.6 41.2 13.7 27.4
Intimidation and Extortion 17.6 27.5 15.7 39.2
Carjacking 13.7 15.7 15.7 54.9
• Lack of respect by gang members for the community and
law enforcement; and
• Denial of gang presence by the community.
SOUTHERN REGION
General Trends
Responses from law enforcement in the Southern region
of the United States included the overriding themes of
fear, intimidation, and increases in crime and graf.ti.
Randy Crank, President of the Virginia Gang Investigators
Association, stated that “the quality of life is decreasing
where the rise of gang activity is increasing.”110
From the
Southern
region,
173 law
enforcement
agencies from
15 states
provided
insight into
20
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
gang activity. While results varied from state to state,
several overall trends and patterns were identi.ed. More
than 50 percent of agencies responding to the 2005
National Gang Threat Assessment reported an increase
in the presence of gangs over the past .ve years. Even
within the past six months, 45.6 percent of agencies
reported at least a slight increase in the presence of gangs.
The following sections further document the trends
in migration, drug traf.cking, and criminal enterprises
identi.ed from information received from law enforcement
agencies.
Gang Presence and Migration
Gangs in the Southern region of the United States claim
both neighborhood-based and national af.liations. Table 11
demonstrates that the largest percentage of investigators
reported moderate or high activity by neighborhoodbased
gangs. As in the Northeastern region, these
homegrown gangs are responsible for much of the gang
activity. However, 10 national gangs are also signi.cantly
represented in the Southern region.
National Gangs
MS-13
The Mid-Atlantic Regional Gang Investigators Network
(MARGIN) reports that MS-13 is the largest and most
dangerous threat in the Mid-Atlantic area. Speci.cally in
Virginia and Washington, DC, MS-13 has solidi.ed itself
as the largest Hispanic gang.111 MS-13 has also been
expanding into North Carolina and Virginia.112,113
Intelligence reporting in 2002 indicated that MS-13
members traf.cked in powdered cocaine, marijuana,
heroin, and methamphetamine throughout the South,
including Texas, Virginia, and Maryland.114 In the current
survey, about 35 percent of of.cials in the Southern region
reported an MS-13 presence; however, approximately 50
percent of of.cials in Texas, Virginia, and Maryland alone
reported the presence of MS-13 in their jurisdictions,
consistent with reporting that the gang is particularly active
in these states.
Bloods
Intelligence reporting documents the presence of the
Bloods throughout the Southern region. In Maryland,
investigators see the presence of UBN,115 which is typically
more structured than the LA-based Bloods,116 while in
North Carolina117 and Virginia,118 Bloods are typically less
structured and are described as offshoots or factions of
their West Coast counterparts. Members of the Bloods
sets are said to transport “multikilogram quantities of
cocaine and marijuana
primarily from
southern California
and Texas and
distribute the drugs in
locations throughout
the Southeastern
region, particularly
Florida, Georgia, and
Tennessee.”119
Little Rock, Arkansas,
has also noted a
signi.cant presence
of Bloods sets.
Consistent with this
intelligence, more than 50 percent of law enforcement
of.cials in the current survey reported the presence of the
Bloods, with 24 percent reporting high or moderate activity.
Crips
Like the Bloods, the Crips are also present throughout the
South. Crips sets in this region operate autonomously
and are not formally af.liated with West Coast Crips.120 In
North Carolina, the Crips show signs of a Midwest in.uence
in their adoption of the traditional Gangster Disciples’ signs
and symbols, such as pitchforks and six-pointed stars.121
Crips follow drug-traf.cking patterns similar to those
that the Bloods follow: “Members of Crip sets transport
cocaine, marijuana, heroin, methamphetamine, and PCP
primarily from southern California, Texas, and Florida for
distribution throughout the southeastern states.”122
In the current survey, 30 percent of of.cials reported
moderate or high Crips activity, and an additional 25
percent reported a low level of activity by the gang.
Figure 4. Presence of Gang Activity Over Time
10
20
30
40
Increased Significantly Increased Slightly No Change
Percentage
Increased Signi.cantly Increased Slightly No Change
Within Past 6 Months Within Past 12 Months Within Past 5 Years
21
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
Table 11. Level of Gang Activity
Level of Gang Involvement High (%) Moderate (%) Low (%) Not Applicable/
Unknown (%)
Neighborhood-Based Drug-
Traf.cking Groups and Crews
17.9 18.5 16.2 47.5
Crips 14.5 15.6 25.4 44.5
Sur 13 11.6 13.3 16.2 59.0
Bloods 9.8 13.9 26.6 49.7
MS-13 7.5 11.6 15.6 65.4
Latin Kings 4.6 7.5 34.7 53.2
Gangster Disciples 4.6 11.0 23.1 61.3
Outlaws (OMG) 4.6 6.9 19.1 69.4
Asian Gangs 1.7 11.0 18.5 68.7
Latin Kings
According to MARGIN, the Mid-Atlantic region has seen
an increase in Latin King recruitment by members from the
Northeastern region.123 Law enforcement of.cials report a
signi.cant presence of the Latin Kings in North Carolina,124
Florida,125 Virginia,126 and Texas. This information is further
corroborated by the current survey, wherein 47 percent of
law enforcement of.cials reported the presence of the Latin
Kings.
Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs
Intelligence indicates the presence of numerous OMGs in
the Southern region. North Carolina and Virginia have
documented the presence of the Hells Angels, Outlaws,
and Pagans,127 and Virginia also noted increasing numbers
of the Bandidos.128 Additional intelligence indicates the
presence of OMGs in the following areas:
• Hells Angels: South Carolina, Maryland, Kentucky, and
North Carolina
• Sons of Silence: Florida, Arkansas, Kentucky, and
Louisiana
• Bandidos: Texas, South Carolina, Kentucky, Oklahoma,
Alabama, Arkansas, and Louisiana
Many southern states have chapters of OMGs, but because
their membership numbers are smaller than those of street
gangs and because OMGs receive less political attention,
many jurisdictions do not consider them as great a threat
as other street gangs. In the current survey, more than 30
percent of of.cials in the region reported the presence of
the Outlaws. Of.cials reported the presence of the
Hells Angels and Pagans as well, with a low level of activity.
Asian Gangs
Approximately 31 percent of of.cials in the Southern region
reported the presence of Asian gangs. This is consistent
with intelligence reporting that documents the West Coast,
Chicago, and New York City as major areas for Asian gang
activity.129
Sur 13
Although Sureño street gangs originated in southern
California—in fact, in California their name is used as an
umbrella term for all southern California street gangs—they
have been documented in almost every region of the
United States through tattoos, graf.ti, and interviews with
sources. Most Sureño gangs outside of California merely
emulate the activities, signs, and symbols of their California
counterparts and have no af.liation with West Coast
members. This is the case in the South.
Within the Southern region, Sureño street gangs have
been documented in Georgia, North Carolina, Florida, and
Texas. Currently, more than 40 percent of of.cials in the
South reported a Sur 13 presence, with about 25 percent
reporting moderate or high activity.
Gangster Disciples
Gang intelligence reports indicate the Gangster Disciples
(GD) transport and distribute “multikilogram quantities of
powdered and crack cocaine and multipound quantities of
marijuana throughout the Southeastern region, particularly
Tennessee and Georgia.”130 Gangster Disciples in
North Carolina are self-contained and have no association
with GD members on a national level. The gang has also
been documented in Florida131 and Virginia.132 In the
current survey, almost 40 percent of investigators in the
22
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
Southern region reported the presence of the Gangster
Disciples.
Maryland and Washington, DC, have also documented the
Gangster Disciples, although the gang calls itself the Crips
while adopting the Gangster Disciples signs, symbols, and
ideology.133 This phenomenon was also reported in
North Carolina; however, investigators there classi.ed the
gangs as Crips.134
Texas Gangs
The Of.ce of the Attorney General in Texas provided
information to supplement the current survey. In 2005,
gang investigators in central Texas reported signi.cant
activity by the gangs listed below.135 Considering the
proximity to the Mexican border, the in.uence of Hispanic
gangs in the Southwest, and the large population of
Hispanic persons in Texas, it is interesting that the
largest percentage of investigators in each jurisdiction
size reported the Crips and the Bloods as the most
in.uential, rather than the Hispanic Sureños and Norteños.
Investigators in West Texas reported the presence of the
OMG Los Carnales and the prison gangs Texas Syndicate,
Aryan Brotherhood, Texas Mexican Ma.a, and Barrio
Azteca.
Drug Trends
Street gangs in the South have some level of involvement
in the distribution and sale of drugs. Respondents to the
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment Survey indicated
that more than 50 percent of gangs had at least moderate
involvement in street-level distribution, whereas at the
wholesale level of distribution, gangs were more likely to
have a lower level of involvement. Survey respondents
indicated that gang involvement was highest with regard to
the distribution and sale of marijuana and cocaine.
Texas, as part of the Southern region, is one of the more
vulnerable states to the traf.cking and smuggling of illicit
drugs into
the United
States.
Texas
shares a
1,254-mile
border with
Mexico,
parts of
which are
open and
easily
accessible
to drug-traf.cking organizations.136 Dallas and Houston
are two of the primary markets identi.ed for marijuana.137
Smuggled from Mexico by various modes of transportation,
the drugs are destined for markets throughout the
country,138 including Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi,
Alabama, and Georgia.139
In Dallas, retail distributors include such gangs as MS-
13, the Latin Kings, the Rolling 60s, the Bloods, and
the Hoover Crips, as well as Mexikanemi and Texas
Syndicate.140 In Houston the Gangster Disciples, Latin
Kings, and Vice Lords are highly involved in the retail
distribution.141 Overall, marijuana distribution at the retail
Table 12. Level of Gang Involvement in Drug Distribution (by Drug Type)
Level of Gang Involvement High (%) Moderate (%) Low (%) None/
Unknown (%)
Street Sales 24.3 28.9 23.1 23.8
Wholesale 14.5 19.7 32.4 33.6
Marijuana 30.6 23.7 10.4 35.2
Crack Cocaine 24.9 20.8 16.8 37.6
Powdered Cocaine 15.0 23.7 17.9 43.3
Methamphetamine 11.6 13.3 24.3 50.8
Heroin 7.5 10.4 22.5 59.5
MDMA 3.5 15.6 19.7 61.3
• Bandidos (OMG) • Hermanos de Pistoleros
Latinos (prison gang)
• Black Gangster Disciples • Latin Kings
• Bloods • Raza Unida (prison gang)
• Crips • Texas Mexican Ma.a
(prison gang)
• Hells Angels (OMG) • Los Sureños
23
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
Table 14. Use of Firearms by Gang Members in the Commission of a Crime
Almost
Always (%) Sometimes (%) Almost
Never (%)
Not Applicable/
Unknown (%)
Felonious Assault 31.8 22.0 6.4 39.9
Homicide 30.6 13.3 5.2 50.9
Drug Sales (Street ) 19.1 34.7 9.2 36.9
Drug Sales (Wholesale) 16.2 23.1 8.1 52.6
Carjacking 15.6 21.4 6.9 56.0
Intimidation and Extortion 10.4 24.9 8.1 56.6
High Moderate Low None/Unknown
8.1%
18.5%
35.8%
37.5%
High Moderate Low None/Unknown
Figure 5. Overall Gang Involvement in Crimes
*Figure does not add up to 100% due to rounding.
level is controlled by the local African-American or Hispanic
gangs, with OMGs and independent dealers, students,
homemakers, and businessmen selling the drug.142
Atlanta, Miami, and Houston remain primary markets for
cocaine in the South.143 In Atlanta, wholesale Mexican
traf.ckers transport the cocaine into the city for further
distribution to drug markets throughout the Southeastern
and Northeastern regions.144 African-American and
Hispanic gangs in these regions are responsible for the
retail distribution. In Florida, drugs enter Miami via the
Caribbean.145 Cocaine is transported throughout the
Northeast and Midwest, with distribution at the wholesale
and retail levels varying by jurisdiction.146 In Houston,
Mexican criminal groups are the primary distributors of
drugs at the wholesale level, whereas gangs, such as the
Black Gangster Disciples, the Crips, the Latin Kings, and
MS-13, control most retail distribution.
While the primary markets for methamphetamine remain
in the Central and Western regions of the United States,
the South is still greatly affected by the distribution and
availability of this drug. Reports indicate that in such
areas as Atlanta, Miami, Mississippi, New Orleans, and
Tennessee, availability is increasing.147
Such gangs as the Vice Lords and Sur 13 are known to be
distributors of methamphetamine in the South, especially
in Florida.148 OMGs and various local street crews are also
highly involved in the distribution of methamphetamine at
the retail level.
According to the 2003 NDTS, 8.5 percent of agencies
reported that OMG involvement in drug distribution was
moderate to high.149 Methamphetamine and marijuana
were the most common drugs with which OMGs were
associated in the region.
Table 13. Level of Gang Involvement in Crime (by Type of Crime)
Level of Gang Involvement High (%) Moderate (%) Low (%) None/
Unknown (%)
Vandalism and Graf.ti 22.5 22.0 28.9 26.6
Felonious Assault 16.8 17.3 28.9 37.0
Burglary 16.2 16.8 30.1 37.0
Firearms Possession 14.5 20.8 27.2 37.6
Auto Theft 12.7 20.8 24.9 41.6
Firearms Burglary 11.0 20.2 28.3 40.5
Intimidation and Extortion 10.4 13.9 32.4 43.4
Homicide 9.8 10.4 31.2 48.6
Firearms Traf.cking 8.7 13.3 24.3 53.8
24
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
Criminal Activity
Hispanic gangs are moving into new territories and
expanding their criminal enterprises. The expansion of
gangs into a region will likely coincide with an increase in
crime and violence. Respondents to the 2005 National
Gang Threat Assessment Survey indicated that gangs are
at least moderately involved in 26.6 percent of crime.
When asked to describe the level of gang involvement in
speci.c crimes, law enforcement agencies in the South
were able to document certain trends. Gangs in this region
were most highly involved in vandalism and graf.ti
crimes as well as felonious assaults. More than onethird
of respondents indicated at least moderate gang
involvement in burglary and .rearm possession. Thirty
percent of respondents indicated that gangs almost always
use .rearms in the commission of felonious assaults or
homicides. Additionally, 53.8 percent reported that gang
members use .rearms at least sometimes in the street
distribution of drugs.
Overall, investigators responding to the 2005 National
Gang Threat Assessment in the South speci.cally noted
the following gang trends having an impact on communities
and law enforcement efforts:
• Increases in neighborhood or homegrown gangs;
• Increased graf.ti and tagging;
• A signi.cant rise in the number of Hispanic gangs
and gang members;
• The escalation of gang violence due to drug
traf.cking and turf wars; and
• The denial of gang presence in several
jurisdictions.
MIDWESTERN REGION
Law enforcement of.cials in the
Midwestern region of the United
States reported that gang
activity has been increasing
over the past two years. High
schools and middle schools
are reporting more activity, and
crime on college campuses
is on the rise. Investigators
noted that gangs seem to be
hiding their af.liations, not
wearing colors, and denying
allegiance to traditional gang groups. Overall, 42 percent
of law enforcement respondents to the 2005 National Gang
Threat Assessment Survey reported a slight or signi.cant
increase in gang activity in the past 12 months.
General Trends
The Midwest, especially Chicago, has historically been a
center for gang activity. Chicago is home to some of the
largest and
most violent
gangs in the
country. In
addition, it is a
transportation
hub for the
movement
of illicit drugs
throughout the
country. Gang
migration in
this region has been prevalent for several years. Gangs
are moving from the larger cities to more suburban and
rural regions, where there is new and fertile ground for
recruitment and drug traf.cking, especially in areas where
law enforcement pressures are less evident.
Gang Presence and Migration
The Gangster Disciples are reported to have the highest
level of activity in the Midwest, although reporting indicates
that several additional gangs have high or signi.cant
activity.
Table 15 illustrates that the Midwest sees high levels of
activity from the Gangster Disciples, Los Sureños, Latin
Kings, and Vice Lords. However, a large percentage of
of.cials also reported the Black Gangster Disciples, Bloods,
Crips, and Outlaws as having a signi.cant level of activity.
Of.cials reported that neighborhood-based groups are also
very active in the Midwest.
25
Figure 6. Presence of Gang Activity Over Time
10
20
30
40
50
60
Increased Significantly Increased Slightly No Change
Percentage
Within Past 6 Months Within Past 12 Months Within Past 5 Years
Increased Signi.cantly Increased Slightly No Change
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
National Gangs
Bloods
In the Midwestern region, law enforcement reporting
identi.es drug-related ties between Bloods in the Midwest
and Bloods on the West Coast. According to the NDIC,
“Bloods sets transport multikilogram quantities of cocaine
and marijuana from Los Angeles, Chicago, and Detroit
and distribute the drugs in locations throughout the
Great Lakes region, particularly in Ohio and Minnesota. .
. . Several Bloods sets in the region obtain cocaine from
Los Angeles–based Bloods sets.”150 In the current survey,
almost 40 percent of law enforcement of.cials in the
Midwestern region reported a Bloods presence, while most
of these reported a low level of activity.
Crips
The activity of the Crips in the Midwest is almost identical
to that of the Bloods. While the Crips are primarily active
on the East and West Coasts, they maintain a low level
of activity in the Midwest and have ties to their West
Coast counterparts. The NDIC reports that “Crip sets
transport multikilogram quantities of cocaine and marijuana
and multiliter quantities of PCP primarily from southern
California for distribution throughout the Great Lakes
region, particularly Ohio and Minnesota. . . . Crips sets in
the region obtain cocaine, marijuana, and PCP from
Los Angeles–based Crips sets.” In the current survey,
almost 40 percent of law enforcement of.cials in the
Midwestern region reported a Crips presence, while most
of these reported a low level of activity—almost the exact
same amount of activity as the Bloods.
Latin Kings
The Latin Kings, also known as the Almighty Latin King
Nation, was formed in Chicago in the mid-1960s. The
Latin Kings are one of the largest, most organized, and
violent Hispanic street gangs in Illinois. With an estimated
membership of between 25,000 and 50,000 nationwide, the
gang is active in 34 states.
By virtue of its predominately Hispanic membership, the
gang reportedly has extensive ties to several Mexican
drug cartels and is responsible for a large amount of the
cocaine traf.cking in Chicago and its surrounding areas.
According to the NDIC, Chicago-based Latin King members
also obtain drugs from the Barrio Azteca, Texas Syndicate,
and Mexican Ma.a prison gangs in Texas, as well as from
Colombian, Dominican, and Nigerian criminal groups
operating in Chicago.
In the current survey, almost 60 percent of law enforcement
of.cials reported the presence of the Latin Kings in the
Midwest, and 33 percent reported a moderate or high
level of activity. Of Illinois of.cials, 81 percent reported
a presence of Latin Kings, and 62 percent indicated a
moderate or high level of activity.
Outlaws OMG
The Outlaws Motorcycle Club is the “dominant [outlaw
motorcycle gang] in the Great Lakes region” and claims
more than 1,100 members nationwide.151 Midwestern
states with an Outlaws presence include Ohio, Indiana,
Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin.
Approximately 34 percent of of.cials reported some level
of activity by the Outlaws in the Midwestern region, and
about 33 percent of Illinois of.cials reported some level of
activity. This re.ects the fact that while the Outlaws are the
dominant outlaw motorcycle gang in the region, OMGs, in
general, maintain a lower pro.le in the Midwestern region
compared to the chapters on the East and West Coasts.
Table 15. Level of Gang Activity
Level of Gang Involvement High (%) Moderate (%) Low (%) Not Applicable/
Unknown (%)
Gangster Disciples 20.5 19.3 23.9 36.3
Neighborhood-Based
Drug-Traf.cking Groups and Crews 18.2 13.6 15.9 51.1
Sur 13 13.6 17.0 12.5 56.8
Latin Kings 12.5 20.5 23.9 43.1
Vice Lords 11.4 13.6 29.5 45.4
Black Gangster Disciples 8.0 10.2 31.8 50.0
Bloods 4.5 8.0 26.1 61.4
Crips 3.4 9.1 25.0 62.5
Outlaws OMG 3.4 9.1 21.6 50.0
26
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
Gangster Disciples
The Gangster Disciples, also commonly referred to as the
Black Gangster Disciples, are one of the largest, most
organized, and most virulent street gangs in Chicago. They
are nationally recognized as the largest denomination of
Folk Nation gangs. The Gangster Disciples are highly
organized and hierarchical in structure. The Federal
Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and open-source reporting
estimates that the Gangster Disciples are active in 43
states and the District of Columbia, and the gang continues
to build a nationwide membership that surpasses 100,000.
Intelligence reports from the NDIC state that gang
members “transport multikilogram amounts of powdered
and crack cocaine, heroin, and marijuana and distribute the
drugs in Chicago and the Great Lakes region.”152
Approximately 64 percent of of.cials responding to the
current survey reported the presence of the Gangster
Disciples, and 40 percent reported a moderate or high
level of activity. Respondents were asked independently
about the activity of the Black Gangster Disciples, and
50 percent reported the presence of the gang. Within
Illinois, 90 percent of investigators reported the presence
of the Gangster Disciples, and 80 percent reported the
presence of the Black Gangster Disciples. This reporting
is consistent with intelligence concerning the gang’s origin,
presence, and activity throughout the Midwest.
Vice Lords
Like the Latin Kings and the Gangster Disciples, the Vice
Lords (or Vice Lord Nation) are endemic to Chicago but
have spread to states throughout the Midwest. In total,
Vice Lord sets have been con.rmed in 28 states, building
a nationwide membership to nearly 35,000 members and
associates. In addition to Illinois, much of the gang’s
activity has been reported in neighboring states, such as
Indiana, Wisconsin, Tennessee, Michigan, Mississippi,
Ohio, and Iowa. Chicago-based Vice Lord members
frequently migrate to the northwest Indiana area to expand
their gang activity. This is considered an ideal area to
facilitate gang activity due to the poor economic conditions
and dilapidated neighborhoods. According to the NDIC,
Vice Lord Nation gangs transport and distribute
multikilogram quantities of powdered cocaine, crack
cocaine, heroin, and marijuana on a monthly basis from
Chicago to destinations throughout the Great Lakes region.
The gang obtains drugs from Mexican, Nigerian, and
Colombian DTOs in Chicago.153
In the current survey, approximately 55 percent of gang
investigators in the Midwest reported the presence of
the Vice Lords, and 25 percent reported a moderate or
high level of activity. More than 90 percent of Illinois
of.cials reported the gang’s presence, and almost 40
percent reported moderate or high activity, consistent with
intelligence reporting that the gang is particularly active in
this state.
Sureños
Although originally an umbrella term for gangs in southern
California, Sureño gang members have migrated across
the United States and have initiated gangs using their
California namesake. Calling themselves Los Sureños
or Sur 13, these gangs sometimes maintain contact with
gang members in California but often simply emulate the
southern California gangs from which they came. This is
primarily the case in the Midwestern region. Within this
region, Sureños have been identi.ed in Illinois, Indiana,
and Nebraska.
Midwestern of.cials responding to the current survey
indicated that Sur 13 was a problem in their jurisdictions,
with 43 percent reporting the presence of the gang and
more than 30 percent reporting a moderate or high level of
activity.
The following gangs were present in the Midwestern region
but were reported as having a low level of activity.154 With
the exception of the Almighty P Stone Nation, it is expected
that many of these gangs would have low activity in the
Midwest, as they are primarily based on the West and/or
East Coasts.
The Almighty P Stone Nation (also commonly known as the
Black Peace Stone Nation, among other names) originated
in Chicago and remains active there. Gang members
“transport multikilogram quantities of cocaine, heroin, and
marijuana from Chicago and Los Angeles for distribution by
members in 20 states, primarily in the Great Lakes, West
Central, and Southeastern regions.”155 Overall, of.cials in
the Midwest reported a low level of activity of the Almighty
P Stone Nation. However, within Illinois, almost 60 percent
reported the gang’s presence, and approximately 14
percent reported a moderate level of activity.
27
• Almighty P Stone Nation • Bandidos
• MS-13 • Mexican Ma.a
• Norteños • Asian Gangs
• 18th Street • Skinheads
• Hells Angels
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
Table 16. Level of Gang Involvement in Drug Distribution (by Drug Type)
Level of Gang Involvement High (%) Moderate (%) Low (%) None/
Unknown (%)
Street Sales 29.5 22.7 27.3 20.5
Wholesale 22.7 20.5 31.8 25.0
Marijuana 39.8 27.3 9.1 23.8
Crack Cocaine 36.4 23.9 15.9 23.8
Powdered Cocaine 21.6 15.9 34.1 28.4
Heroin 9.1 15.9 33.0 42.0
Methamphetamine 6.8 17.0 34.1 42.0
MDMA 3.4 14.8 40.9 40.9
The following gangs (with the exception of the Pagans)
would not be expected to be active in the Midwest and, in
fact, were not reported to have a signi.cant presence in the
Midwestern region.156 The Pagans have been documented
in Ohio, and more than 25 percent of Ohio of.cials reported
their presence in the current survey:
Drug Trends
Gangs are highly active in the distribution and traf.cking
of drugs in the Midwestern region, with 52.2 percent of
respondents indicating a moderate or high involvement
in the street-level distribution of drugs and at least 43.2
percent of respondents indicating a high or moderate level
of involvement in the wholesale distribution of drugs (see
Table 16).
Within this region, gang involvement was highest in the
distribution of marijuana, with nearly 40 percent of reporting
agencies indicating a high level of gang involvement.
Crack cocaine was ranked as the second-highest illicit drug
with which gangs were involved.
These responses are expected, as Chicago is the hub
of a prime drug-transportation corridor for distribution
throughout the country. Chicago is a primary market for
the distribution of marijuana, half of which is distributed to
other states in the Midwest, including Michigan, Minnesota,
Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin.157 While the Mexican DTOs
are the principal transporters at the wholesale level of this
drug, street gangs—particularly the Gangster Disciples,
Vice Lords, and Latin Kings—are the principal retail
distributors.158
More than
70 percent of
respondents to this
survey reported at
least low levels of
gang involvement
in the distribution
of crack cocaine
and powdered
cocaine. This is
consistent with the
fact that Chicagobased
wholesale
distributors are the
primary suppliers of
powdered cocaine
to the city and to the Great Lakes Region, as well as some
areas in the Northeastern and Western regions.159 While
Colombian and Mexican drug traf.ckers dominate the
wholesale distribution of the drug, the Gangster Disciples,
Latin Kings, and Vice Lords are responsible for sales at
the street level.160 Gang migration from the larger cities to
more rural areas has increased the spread of cocaine.
Approximately 13 percent of respondents to the 2003
NDTS reported that OMG involvement in drug distribution
in the Midwest was moderate to high. OMGs in this
region were most likely to be involved in the distribution
of marijuana and methamphetamine, although the level of
involvement was very low.
Indian Country is also being affected by the Midwestern
region’s high levels of drug traf.cking. Hispanic street
gangs have been reported to be using Native Americans to
transport illicit drugs onto reservations.161
28
• UBN • Texas Mexican Ma.a (Mexikanemi)
• La Raza • Texas Syndicate
• Border Brothers • La Nuestra Familia
• Pagans
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
Criminal Activity
In the Midwest, approximately 65 percent of law
enforcement respondents indicated that gangs are involved
at some level in the crimes in their region. More than onethird
of these agencies reported moderate to high gang
involvement.
Respondents to the 2005 National Gang Threat
Assessment were asked to rate the level of involvement
of gangs in speci.c criminal acts. More than half of the
respondents indicated that gangs were at least moderately
involved in the vandalism and graf.ti reported in their
jurisdictions. Gangs were also found to have a high
level of involvement in felonious assault (23.9 percent)
and .rearms possession (22.7 percent). Whereas in the
Northeastern region gangs were found to have a high
level of involvement in intimidation and extortion less than
6 percent of the time, in the Midwest nearly 15 percent of
respondents reported high gang involvement in intimidation
and extortion crimes, and an additional 16 percent reported
moderate involvement.
Law enforcement respondents to the 2005 National Gang
Threat Assessment were asked to quantify how often
gangs use .rearms while committing speci.c crimes. More
than one-third (36.4 percent) of respondents stated that
gangs almost always used .rearms in the commission of
a homicide, and 35.2 percent of respondents said .rearms
were almost always used when the crime was felonious
assault. Firearms were also found to be used at least
sometimes in more than 35 percent of carjackings.
Overall, investigators responding to the 2005 National
Gang Threat Assessment in the Midwest speci.cally noted
the following gang trends that were having an impact on
communities and law enforcement efforts:
• An increase in thefts and burglaries;
• Fear and intimidation of community members;
• Competition between Hispanic gangs for territories;
• Increased cooperation between gangs; and
• Increased gang and drug activity in Indian Country.
WESTERN REGION
General Trends
Gangs continue to thrive and .ourish in many areas in
the Western region of the United States. Hispanic gang
members are consistently a threat to communities and law
enforcement, especially due to the increased migration of
these gangs into both large cities and small communities
throughout the region. Survey respondents reported
continued growth in membership, violence, and general
Figure 7. Overall Gang Involvement in Crimes
High Moderate Low None/Unknown
9.1%
25.0%
30.7%
35.2%
High Moderate Low None/Unknown
Table 17. Level of Gang Involvement in Crime (by Type of Crime)
Level of Gang Involvement High (%) Moderate (%) Low (%) None/
Unknown (%)
Vandalism and Graf.ti 35.2 19.3 21.6 23.9
Felonious Assault 23.9 19.3 27.3 29.6
Firearms Possession 22.7 18.2 30.7 28.4
Intimidation and Extortion 14.8 15.9 26.1 43.2
Homicide 14.8 11.4 25.0 48.9
Auto Theft 12.5 21.6 37.5 28.4
Firearms Burglary 12.5 21.6 34.1 31.8
Firearms Traf.cking 12.5 18.2 23.9 45.4
Burglary 6.8 30.7 35.2 27.3
29
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
Figure 8. Presence of Gang Activity Over Time
10
20
30
40
50
Increased Significantly Increased Slightly No Change
Percentage
Within Past 6 Months Within Past 12 Months Within Past 5 Years
Increased Signi.cantly Increased Slightly No Change
antisocial
activity. There
is some
evidence of
increased
sophistication
in the
planning of
violent
attacks,
especially
in the use
of ambush
techniques and assaults on police of.cers. This level of
sophistication appears to span all types of gangs, with
numerous agencies also reporting an increased use of
technology among gang members.
Responses from 143 law enforcement agencies from 12
states in the Western region provided insight into gang
activity in this region. Resonating throughout the region
was the fact that within the last 12 months, the majority of
reporting agencies noted moderate to signi.cant increases
in gang-related activity.
Gang Presence and Migration
By far, the gang with the highest-reported activity was
Los Sureños. The large presence of Sureño gang
members is consistent
with reported migration
patterns of this gang into
both large cities and small
communities. Norteños,
Asian gangs, Bloods, and
Crips were also noted as
highly active in several of
the reporting jurisdictions.
Neighborhood-based gangs
remain active throughout
the region.
National Gangs
MS-13
MS-13 originated in Los Angeles and has migrated to areas
throughout the United States. In addition to California,
MS-13 cliques have been identi.ed in Alaska, Colorado,
Nevada, Arizona, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.162 The
gang transports “multikilogram quantities of powdered
cocaine and marijuana and kilogram quantities of heroin
and methamphetamine throughout the Southwest,
particularly southern California, Nevada, and Texas.”163
In the current survey, of.cials in the Western region
reported a relatively low level of activity by MS-13.
Although 40.6 percent of of.cials in the West reported an
MS-13 presence, less than 10 percent reported a moderate
or high level of activity. Within California, a similar
percentage of of.cials reported the gang’s presence and
level of activity.
One explanation for the low level of reported MS-13 activity
in the West is the gang’s migration to the Mid-Atlantic
region, especially to northern Virginia and Washington, DC.
Thus, despite the gang’s Los Angeles origins, it is currently
most active on the East Coast.
18th Street
The 18th Street gang formed in Los Angeles, and it is
estimated that 80 percent of the gang’s California members
Table 18. Use of Firearms by Gang Members in the Commission of a Crime
Almost
Always (%) Sometimes (%) Almost
Never (%)
Not Applicable/
Unknown (%)
Homicide 36.4 10.2 5.7 47.7
Felonious Assault 35.2 23.9 11.4 29.6
Carjacking 20.5 14.8 11.4 53.4
Street Sales 13.6 33.0 17.0 36.3
Intimidation and Extortion 12.5 30.7 11.4 45.5
Wholesale 11.4 47.7 13.6 27.3
30
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
are illegal aliens from Mexico and Central America.164
Nationwide, the estimated membership of 18th Street
ranges from 30,000 to 50,000 members.165 According to
the Connecticut State Gang Threat Assessment, “The gang
is most active in the Southwestern and Paci.c regions and
is expanding in the New York/New Jersey and West Central
regions.”166 Outside of California, 18th Street has been
identi.ed in the Western states of Arizona, New Mexico,
Nevada, Oregon, Washington,167 and Utah.168
18th Street’s West Coast origins and migration throughout
the West are re.ected in the current study. Approximately
60 percent of law enforcement of.cials reported the
presence of the gang, and about 27 percent reported its
activity level as moderate or high. Within California the
responses were similar.
Bloods
The Bloods street gang association was formed in
Los Angeles in the early 1970s—initially to provide
members protection from the Crips.169 For this reason, it
is not surprising that almost 64 percent of law enforcement
of.cials in the Western region reported a Bloods presence,
and approximately 25 percent reported moderate or high
activity.
Bloods members transport cocaine, marijuana, and PCP
from southern California and Texas and distribute the drugs
in locations throughout the Paci.c, Southwestern, and West
Central regions—speci.cally California, Colorado, Utah,
Nevada, and Washington.170
Crips
Like the Bloods, the Crips street gang association was
formed in Los Angeles and has been identi.ed throughout
the country. The Crips maintain a strong presence in
California and have also been identi.ed in the Western
states of Washington, Idaho, Colorado, Utah, and
Arizona.171 Consistent with this reporting, more than 70
percent of of.cials in the Western region reported the
presence of the Crips, and 36 percent reported a moderate
or high level of activity.
Sureños
As mentioned above, almost 90 percent of of.cials in
the West reported the presence of Sureños, with 51
percent reporting a high level of activity and 21 percent
reporting a moderate level of activity. This overwhelming
presence is likely attributable to the fact that “Sureño, or
Sur 13, is a banner under which most southern California
Hispanic gangs gather.”172 As a result of the collective
nature of the term sureño, one would expect Sur 13’s
presence in California to be larger. In contrast to other
regions reporting the existence of a speci.c gang called
Los Sureños or Sur 13, Western of.cials may classify all
Sureño gangs together to describe their activity. Sureño
gangs and gang members have been identi.ed throughout
the West and have a major presence in Colorado, Arizona,
New Mexico, and Utah.
Table 19. Level of Gang Activity
Level of Gang Involvement High (%) Moderate (%) Low (%) Not Applicable/
Unknown (%)
Sur 13 51.0 21.0 13.3 14.7
Crips 21.7 14.7 35.0 28.7
Norteños 20.3 14.7 17.5 47.6
Neighborhood-Based
Drug-Traf.cking Groups and
Crews
18.9 19.6 23.1 38.5
Asian Gangs 13.3 17.5 31.5 37.8
Bloods 12.6 11.9 39.2 36.4
18th Street 10.5 16.1 32.2 41.3
Skinheads 8.4 18.2 41.3 32.2
Hells Angels (OMG) 8.4 16.1 32.2 43.4
Mexican Ma.a 7.7 16.8 36.4 39.2
La Nuestra Familia 4.9 7.7 17.5 69.9
MS-13 4.9 4.2 31.5 59.4
Bandidos (OMG) 2.8 7.7 18.2 71.3
31
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
Norteños
Like the Sureño gangs, the term norteño is used to
describe street gangs from central or northern California.
Norteños and Sureños are considered bitter rivals; in fact,
Norteños originally formed for protection from Sureño
gangs. Like the reporting of the presence of Sureños,
the term norteño is used to describe an entire category of
California street gangs. Therefore, it is not surprising that
more than 50 percent of of.cials in the Western region
reported the gang’s presence, and 35 percent reported
their activity level as moderate or high.
Mexican Ma.a
The Mexican Ma.a is one of the oldest and most powerful
prison gangs operating in the United States. Like many
gangs in the West, the Mexican Ma.a originated in
California and spread throughout the country. However,
many groups outside California calling themselves
Mexican Ma.a are not formally af.liated with the gang.
These groups—often formed by California gang members
.eeing the state’s tough three-strikes laws—have become
powerful in prisons, especially in Arizona (Old Mexican
Ma.a and New Mexican Ma.a) and Texas (Texas Mexican
Ma.a, or Mexikanemi).
According to the NDIC, the “Mexican Ma.a smuggles the
drugs from Tijuana into southern California for distribution
and is suspected of smuggling drugs from Mexico into
Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas.” It also distributes drugs
throughout northern California, Washington, and Hawaii
and, to a lesser degree, Idaho, Nevada, and Oregon.173
This presence in the Western region is re.ected in the
current study, as 61 percent of of.cials reported the gang’s
presence, and 25 percent reported a moderate or high level
of activity.
California’s Mexican Ma.a has recently increased the
extent to which it controls the street-level drug trade
through its dominance of Sureño gangs. Sureño street
gangs sell drugs and must pay a 10 percent tax to the
Mexican Ma.a in return for protection in prison. Failure
to pay the tax will result in a “green light” on the gang’s
members, meaning that they will be shot on sight. As
the Mexican Ma.a’s control increases, some evidence
suggests that “Sureño gangs are rebelling against the
process and .ghting back.”174
La Nuestra Familia
La Nuestra Familia is a highly structured and violent prison
gang primarily active in central and northern California.
The gang has also been documented across the West in
Arizona, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington.175
In the current study, 30 percent of of.cials in the West
reported the presence of La Nuestra Familia, and
approximately 13 percent indicated that its activity was
moderate or high. Because the gang is particularly active
in California, it is not surprising that a larger percentage of
California investigators reported moderate or high activity.
Hells Angels OMG
The Hells Angels Motorcycle Club (HAMC) was formed
in San Bernardino, California, in 1948 and currently
has chapters in Alaska, California, Arizona, Nevada,
Washington, and Colorado.176 According to the NDIC:
HAMC is considered a primary producer and distributor
of illegal drugs in the United States. While it primarily
has been involved in the production and distribution
of methamphetamine and marijuana, the OMG also
smuggles or distributes cocaine, hashish, heroin, LSD
. . . , MDMA . . . , PCP, . . . and diverted pharmaceuticals
into or within the United States.177
In the current study, approximately 57 percent of law
enforcement of.cials in the West reported the presence of
the HAMC, and 25 percent reported a moderate or high
level of activity. The percentage of of.cials reporting HAMC
activity in California is slightly higher, with approximately
60 percent reporting a presence and 29 percent reporting
moderate or high activity.
Bandidos
Originally formed in Houston, the Bandidos OMG has been
documented in Washington, Nevada, Montana, Wyoming,
Colorado, and New Mexico. The Bandidos are “particularly
active in marijuana, methamphetamine, and cocaine
distribution in the Southwestern and Paci.c regions of the
United States.”178
In the current study, of.cials in the West corroborated the
Bandidos’ presence in that region. Almost 30 percent of
investigators in the region reported the presence of the
Bandidos. Intelligence indicates that the Bandidos have
a larger presence in Washington and New Mexico than
in other states in the region. Within these two states, 70
percent of of.cials reported the gang’s presence, and 30
percent reported its activity as moderate or high.
32
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
Asian Gangs
The West Coast has been identi.ed as the “stronghold
of Asian organized crime activity, particularly within the
communities of Santa Ana and Garden Grove in Orange
County, California.” This assertion is supported by the
current survey data. In the West, more than 60 percent
of of.cials reported the presence of Asian gangs, and 31
percent reported a moderate or high level of activity. Within
California, more than 70 percent reported the presence
of Asian gangs, and almost 35 percent reported that the
gangs’ activity level was moderate or high.
Skinheads
The Skinhead movement began in England in the 1960s
and attracted a substantial following in the United States
in the mid-to-late 1980s.179 With active pockets across
the country, Skinheads often sympathize with other white
supremacist groups, especially in the prison setting. In
the current survey, 68 percent of of.cials in the Western
region reported the presence of Skinheads, and 27 percent
reported a moderate or high level of activity. Of the states
in the West, the largest percentage of California and Utah
of.cials reported a Skinhead presence.
The following gangs were present in the Western region but
were reported as having a low level of activity.180 This is not
surprising, as most of these gangs are based in the Midwest
or on the East Coast. However, intelligence indicates that
the Pagans have a presence in Nevada and Washington:
Drug Trends
The widespread Hispanic gang activity in this region is also
associated with a high volume of drug-traf.cking activity.
The drugs most commonly associated with Hispanic-based
groups are marijuana, heroin, and methamphetamine.
Approximately three-quarters of the respondents to the
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment rated gang
involvement in street sales of drugs as moderate to high.
Twenty percent of law enforcement agencies indicated a
high involvement of gangs in the wholesale distribution of
narcotics and illicit drugs.
Nearly 90 percent of law enforcement respondents
indicated that gangs were involved at some level in the
distribution of marijuana. As California has been reported
to be one of the leading domestic sources of marijuana,
these results are not unexpected.181 Hawaii and the
Paci.c Northwest are also primary sources of domestic
marijuana.182 Foreign marijuana sources include Mexico
and Canada. The distribution of the foreign-produced
marijuana is often controlled by the Mexican DTOs at the
wholesale level, whereas domestic marijuana distribution at
the wholesale and retail levels often occurs by the cultivator
of the drug.183 In Los Angeles, retail distributors include the
Bloods, the Crips, 18th Street, and MS-13.184 In San Diego,
African-American and Hispanic gangs are known for the
distribution of marijuana.185
Street gangs in the West are highly involved in the
distribution of methamphetamine, with 73.5 percent of
respondents indicating moderate or high involvement by
gangs. California is one of the primary domestic sources of
this drug and the only area that produces enough quantities
for national distribution.186 Street gangs and OMGs are
known for distribution at varying levels.187 Speci.cally,
• Almighty P Stone Nation • Latin Kings
• Black Gangster Disciples • Outlaws
• Border Brothers • Pagans
• Gangster Disciples • UBN
• La Raza • Vice Lords
Table 20. Level of Gang Involvement in Drug Distribution (by Drug Type)
Level of Gang Involvement High (%) Moderate (%) Low (%) None/
Unknown (%)
Street Sales 39.2 34.3 16.1 10.5
Wholesale 20.3 24.5 28.7 26.6
Marijuana 54.5 24.5 9.8 11.2
Methamphetamine 45.5 28.0 15.4 11.2
Crack Cocaine 28.0 11.2 35.7 25.2
Heroin 12.6 23.1 39.2 25.2
Powdered Cocaine 12.6 20.3 41.3 25.9
MDMA 11.2 18.9 34.3 35.7
33
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
Table 22. Use of Firearms by Gang Members in the Commission of a Crime
Almost
Always (%) Sometimes (%) Almost
Never (%)
Not Applicable/
Unknown (%)
Felonious Assault 63.6 21.7 2.8 11.9
Homicide 55.9 16.1 2.8 25.2
Bank Robbery 42.0 16.8 4.9 36.4
Carjacking 41.3 28.0 5.6 25.2
Wholesale 28.0 23.1 9.1 39.9
Street Sales 23.1 53.8 9.1 14.0
Intimidation and Extortion 19.6 40.6 9.1 30.8
Table 21. Level of Gang Involvement in Crime (by Type of Crime)
Level of Gang Involvement High (%) Moderate (%) Low (%) None/
Unknown (%)
Vandalism and Graf.ti 60.1 22.4 9.8 7.7
Felonious Assault 45.5 25.2 18.2 11.1
Firearms Possession 43.4 25.9 14.7 16.1
Auto Theft 36.4 31.5 18.9 13.3
Firearms Burglary 28.7 23.8 23.8 23.8
Burglary 27.3 33.6 26.6 12.6
Homicide 27.3 16.8 31.5 24.5
Intimidation and Extortion 21.0 27.3 27.3 24.5
Firearms Traf.cking 21.0 17.5 25.9 35.7
Figure 9. Overall Gang Involvement in Crimes
*Figure does not add up to 100% due to rounding.
High Moderate Low None/Unknown
19.6%
36.4% 23.8%
20.3%
High Moderate Low None/Unknown
MS-13 and 18th Street have been noted to control
distribution in parts of this region.188
Cocaine is brought into the West by Mexican and
Colombian DTOs through Los Angeles. From
Los Angeles, the drugs are transported across the
country.189 The Mexican Ma.a and 18th Street, as well as
the Bloods and Crips, are reported to control most streetlevel
distribution of both powder and crack cocaine.190
In the Western region, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and
Seattle are signi.cant markets for the distribution or
abuse of heroin.191 Mexican black-tar heroin is smuggled
daily into Los Angeles and then transported throughout
the Western states.192 Street-gang involvement in the
distribution of heroin varies substantially by jurisdiction.
According to the 2003 NDTS, 19.1 percent of responding
agencies reported that OMG involvement in drug
distribution was moderate to high.193 Methamphetamine
and marijuana were the most common drugs with which
OMGs were associated in the region.
Criminal Activity
Acording to Wes McBride, President of the California Gang
Investigators Association,
While street-gang activity is most often associated
with violence, gang members involve themselves
in all manner of criminal activities, from graf.ti,
vandalism, theft, burglary, carjacking, and murder. They
rob from persons, stores, banks, and armored cars.194
34
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
These beliefs were supported by survey respondents, who
noted that gangs were at least moderately involved in 56
percent of all crimes in the Western region.
More than 90 percent of respondents indicated that gangs
had some type of involvement in vandalism and graf.ti
throughout all jurisdictions. Gangs were noted to be
highly involved in 45.5 percent of felonious assaults. Law
enforcement agencies in this area also reported substantial
gang involvement in identity theft and credit card fraud,
a trend not seen in other regions. Approximately 39
percent of respondents indicated moderate to high gang
involvement in identity theft, and 34 percent indicated
moderate to high involvement of gangs in credit card
theft. This supports intelligence that suggests gangs are
becoming more sophisticated and technologically savvy.
Survey respondents were asked to rate the use of .rearms
by gangs in the commission of a crime. Gangs were
reported to almost always use .rearms by 63.6 percent
of respondents. Homicide was the second-most common
35
crime in which gang members were likely to use .rearms.
It is interesting that 42 percent of respondents noted that
gangs almost always used .rearms in bank robberies,
another trend not seen in other regions.
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment Survey
respondents noted several criminal trends, including the
following:
• Sophistication in the planning of violent attacks and
assaults on police of.cers;
• Increased uses of technology;
• Increased cases of identity and credit card theft;
• An increase in the migration and activity of
Hispanic gangs;
• The reemergence of graf.ti; and
• An increase in the use of .rearms.
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
OUTLOOK
Patterns of gang-related violence and crime have been thoroughly documented throughout this
report. As gang migration occurs at increasing levels across the country, new and emergent trends
in criminal activity will surface. New communities will feel the impact of gangs in their neighborhoods
and will see the slow erosion of safe havens for their children. Gangs will move into jurisdictions
where law enforcement may have less knowledge of their activities and culture and may not have
the support to combat them. The lessons learned from this report, and those previously published,
lay the foundation for communities and law enforcement to work together to develop thoughtfully
constructed prevention, intervention, and suppression plans. The gang problem in the United States
can be solved if communities acknowledge the issue and work with partners in their communities and
across the country.
While law enforcement of.cials have responded to the gang threat in many jurisdictions, most of
the response has been localized. As the problem spreads into other areas and goes national and
international, a more coordinated response is necessary. A national gang database that is accessible
and interactive with local, state, and federal agencies is germane to addressing this issue. As most
gang crimes are violations of local statutes, coordination and cooperation by federal agencies with
local law enforcement is imperative. Additionally, further coordinated training for law enforcement,
community, and public of.cials will provide the knowledge and forethought to the development of
prevention and intervention programs in communities across the nation.
36
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
APPENDIX A:
National Gang Threat Assessment Survey
Agency Name:_____________________________________________________________________________________
Name of person .lling out survey:______________________________________________________________________
Title:_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Address:__________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
City:___________________________________________State:_______________________ Zip:__________________
County:__________________________________________________________________________________________
Telephone:________________________________________________________________________________________
Fax:_____________________________________________________________________________________________
E-mail:___________________________________________________________________________________________
Jurisdiction/Region (Please indicate what city/cities or county/counties pertain to your answers.):____________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Total population of area reporting on:___________________________________________________________________
37
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
1. Please rate the impact of the following crime problems in your jurisdiction.
High Moderate Low None Unknown
Drug Traf.cking . . . . .
Street Sales . . . . .
Wholesale . . . . .
Chemical Drug Manufacture . . . . .
Intimidation/Extortion . . . . .
Robbery . . . . .
Bank Robbery . . . . .
Jewelry Theft . . . . .
Interstate Theft of Stolen Property . . . . .
Auto Theft . . . . .
Chop Shop . . . . .
Carjacking . . . . .
Burglary . . . . .
Murder . . . . .
Felonious Assault (Including Drive-by Shooting) . . . . .
Sexual Assault/Rape . . . . .
Kidnapping . . . . .
Weapons . . . . .
Firearms Traf.cking . . . . .
Firearms Burglary/Theft of Gun . . . . .
Straw Purchases . . . . .
Firearms Possession Offenses . . . . .
Explosives/Explosive Devices . . . . .
Other _____________________ . . . . .
Arson . . . . .
Prostitution . . . . .
Fraud . . . . .
Identity Theft . . . . .
Insurance Fraud . . . . .
Credit Card Fraud . . . . .
Vandalism/Graf.ti/Tagging . . . . .
Money Laundering . . . . .
Human Traf.cking . . . . .
Other:_____________________________ . . . . .
Other:_____________________________ . . . . .
Rate Overall Crime Problem . . . . .
38
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
2. Please rate the level of gang involvement in the following crimes.
High Moderate Low None Unknown
Drug Traf.cking . . . . .
Street Sales . . . . .
Wholesale . . . . .
Chemical Drug Manufacture . . . . .
Intimidation/Extortion . . . . .
Robbery . . . . .
Bank Robbery . . . . .
Jewelry Theft . . . . .
Interstate Theft of Stolen Property . . . . .
Auto Theft . . . . .
Chop Shop . . . . .
Carjacking . . . . .
Burglary . . . . .
Murder . . . . .
Felonious Assault (Including Drive-by Shooting) . . . . .
Sexual Assault/Rape . . . . .
Kidnapping . . . . .
Weapons . . . . .
Firearms Traf.cking . . . . .
Firearms Burglary/Theft of Gun . . . . .
Straw Purchases . . . . .
Firearms Possession Offenses . . . . .
Explosives/Explosive Devices . . . . .
Other _____________________ . . . . .
Arson . . . . .
Prostitution . . . . .
Fraud . . . . .
Identity Theft . . . . .
Insurance Fraud . . . . .
Credit Card Fraud . . . . .
Vandalism/Graf.ti/Tagging . . . . .
Money Laundering . . . . .
Human Traf.cking . . . . .
Other:_____________________________ . . . . .
Other:_____________________________ . . . . .
Rate Overall Crime Problem . . . . .
39
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
3. Please indicate how often gangs use .rearms while committing the following crimes. Check N/A if gangs
are not involved in these crimes.
Almost
Always
Sometimes
Almost
Never
N/A Unknown
Drug Traf.cking . . . . .
Street Sales . . . . .
Wholesale . . . . .
Chemical Drug Manufacture . . . . .
Intimidation/Extortion . . . . .
Robbery . . . . .
Bank Robbery . . . . .
Jewelry Theft . . . . .
Interstate Theft of Stolen Property . . . . .
Auto Theft . . . . .
Carjacking . . . . .
Burglary . . . . .
Murder . . . . .
Felonious Assault
(Including Drive-by Shooting)
. . . . .
Sexual Assault/Rape . . . . .
Kidnapping . . . . .
Prostitution . . . . .
Human Traf.cking . . . . .
Other:_____________________________ . . . . .
Other:_____________________________ . . . . .
40
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
4. Please rate the level of gang activity in your region.
Increased
Signi.cantly
Increased
Slightly
No
Change
Decreased
Slightly Decreased
Length of Time . . . . .
Within the Past 6 Months . . . . .
Within the Past 12 Months . . . . .
Within the Past 5 Years . . . . .
5. What emerging gang trends have you seen in your community (i.e., graf.ti, tagging, open drug sales, gang members in
colors)?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. Does your community have exclusively female gangs (do not include a female gang that is a counterpart of a male
gang)? YES . NO .
If yes, how do they impact the community?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. Are gangs in your jurisdiction using technology to facilitate criminal activity (e.g., Internet, Web sites, e-mail, Nextel,
computers)? YES . NO .
If yes, please elaborate. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
41
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
8. Please rate the level of activity of each group in your jurisdiction. If a group does not exist in your
jursisdiction, please check N/A.
Group High Moderate Low None Unknown
Bloods (all sets) . . . . .
UBN . . . . .
Crips (all sets) . . . . .
Latin Kings . . . . .
Vice Lords . . . . .
Almighty P Stone Nation . . . . .
Black Gangster Disciples . . . . .
Gangster Disciples . . . . .
Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) . . . . .
Hispanic Sureños (Sur 13) . . . . .
Hispanic Norteños (14) . . . . .
Hispanic Other_________________________ . . . . .
18th Street Gang . . . . .
La Raza . . . . .
Border Brothers . . . . .
Hells Angels OMG . . . . .
Pagans OMG . . . . .
Banditos OMG . . . . .
Outlaws OMG . . . . .
Mexican Ma.a/La Eme . . . . .
Mexikanemi (Texas Mexican Ma.a) . . . . .
Texas Syndicate . . . . .
La Nuestra Familia . . . . .
Neighborhood-based Drug-Traf.cking
Groups/Crews . . . . .
Asian Gangs (all sets) . . . . .
Skinheads . . . . .
Other:_____________________________ . . . . .
42
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
How long has the gang been in your region?
Less than 6 months 6 months to 1 yr 1yr to 2 yrs 2 yrs to 5 yrs More than 5 yrs
. . . . .
Please indicate how many members of this gang are illegal aliens.
Most Some Very Few None Unknown
. . . . .
For the MORE SIGNIFICANT gangs in your region, please answer the following questions. Please make additional copies
as needed.
9. GANG NAME:____________________________________
Where did this gang originate?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
If this gang originated from a different area, what brought it to your region?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
What is the country of origin of these illegal aliens?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Is this gang migrating from your region to other areas, and if so, where?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
What is the estimated membership of this gang within your community (do not include persons incarcerated in state or
federal prison)?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
What gangs are allies of this gang?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
What gangs are rivals of this gang?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Please document any other signi.cant facts or emerging trends about this gang.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
43
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
10. Please rate the level of gang involvement in the distribution of the following drugs in your jurisdiction.
High Moderate Low None Unknown
Drug . . . . .
Powdered cocaine . . . . .
Crack cocaine . . . . .
Heroin . . . . .
Methamphetamine . . . . .
Marijuana . . . . .
MDMA (Ecstasy) and analogs . . . . .
GHB and analogs . . . . .
Ketamine . . . . .
Rohypnol . . . . .
LSD . . . . .
PCP . . . . .
Psilocybin (mushrooms) . . . . .
Pharmaceuticals . . . . .
Other:_____________________________ . . . . .
Other:_____________________________ . . . . .
44
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
11. Are GANGS associated with any organized crime entities in your jurisdiction?
. Yes . No . Unknown
Russian/Central/East European Organized Crime .
Italian Organized Crime .
La Cosa Nostra Organized Crime .
Asian Organized Crime .
Albanian Organized Crime .
Nigerian Organized Crime .
Middle Eastern Organizations .
Mexican Drug Organizations .
Colombian Drug Organizations .
Dominican Drug Organizations .
Other_____________________________________ .
Other_____________________________________ .
12. Are GANGS associated with any domestic or international terrorist organizations or extremist groups within your
jurisdiction? YES . NO .
If yes, please explain.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
13. How many gangs are active in your jurisdiction?_______________________________________________________
14. How many gang members are active in your jurisdiction?________________________________________________
15. What has been the response by communities within your region to the gang problem?
(Example: community outreach programs, school initiatives, denial, etc.)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
16. Describe how gangs impact the quality of life in the communities within your jurisdiction.________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
17. What gang interdiction, intervention, or suppression strategies have been most effective in your jurisdiction?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
45
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
18. Has your gang unit increased or decreased over the past two years?
Increased . Decreased . Please explain.________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
19. Does your jurisdiction lead or participate in a multiagency gang task force?
YES . NO . Please explain.___________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
20. Please describe what you believe is the overall national threat.____________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
46
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
Gang/Clique/Set Name Group Af.liation Race/Ethnicity # of Members
Ex. Cornado Locos Salvatrucha (CLS) MS-13 H 150
Ex. Monroe Street Hustlers Bloods AA 230
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
AS – Asian PI – Paci.c Islander N – Native American O – Other (please specify)
AA – African American W – White H – Hispanic
Please provide a comprehensive list of all gangs in your jurisdiction. We have provided the following table for you to use.
Please make additional copies as necessary. If you have a list of gangs in an electronic format, please attach a computer
printout or disk instead.
Race/Ethnicity Codes. Please use all that apply.
47
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
Thank you for completing this survey. Before sending your responses back, please be sure to attach:
1. A comprehensive list of gangs in your region and/or jurisdiction. This list may be a computer printout or in a handwritten
or electronic version.
2. Copies of all published materials your agency has written about gangs (i.e., Threat Assessments, Pro.les).
48
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
Midwest
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
APPENDIX B:
Regional Divisions of the United States
49
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
California Gang Investigators Association
https://www.cgiaonline.org
President
Mr. Wes McBride (Ret. LASD Sgt.)
PMB 331
5942 Edinger, Suite 113
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
(888) 229-2442 Of.ce
(714) 457-6554 Fax
E-mail: wmcbride@socal.rr.com
Vice President
Detective Dan Nalian
West Covina Police Department
1444 West Garvey Avenue
West Covina, CA 91790
(626) 814-8533 Of.ce
E-mail: DANNAL1@aol.com
Dan.Nalian@WCPD.org
East Coast Gang Investigators Association
https://www.ecgia.org
GRIPE Web site: https://www.gripe4rkids.org
President
Detective Wes Daily, Jr., (Ret.)
Post Of.ce Box 478
Mullica Hill, NJ 08062
(631) 523-6555 Of.ce
E-mail: ecgiapres@aol.com
Florida Gang Investigators Association
https://www.fgia.com
President
Mr. Rusty Keeble
Of.ce of Security Intelligence
Orange County Corrections Department
Post Of.ce Box 4970
Orlando, FL 32802-4970
(407) 836-3190 Of.ce
(407) 836-3103 Fax
E-mail: james.keeble@oc..net
Georgia Gang Investigators Association
https://www.ggia.us
President
Sergeant Joey M. Woods
APPENDIX C:
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
Tift County Sheriff’s Of.ce
Post Of.ce Box 46
Tifton, GA 31793
(229) 388-6020 Of.ce
E-mail: joey.woods@tiftsheriff.net
Mid-Atlantic Regional Gang Investigators
Network (MARGIN)
https://www.hidta.org/margin/
Chairman
Corporal Tony Avendorph
Police Intelligence Unit
Prince George’s County Police Department
7600 Barlowe Road
Landover, MD 20785
(301) 883-6853 Of.ce
E-mail: FAAvendorph@co.pg.md.us
Vice Chairman
Patrick Word
Gaithersburg Maryland Police Department
14 Fulks Corner Avenue
Gaithersburg, MD 20877
(301) 258-6400; Ext. 132
E-mail: pword@ci.gaithersburg.md.us
Secretary
Jeffrey Wennar
50 Maryland Avenue
Rockville, MD 20854
(240) 777-7321
E-mail: Jeffrey.Wennar@montgomerycountymd.gov
Midwest Gang Investigators Association
https://www.mgia.org
Chairman
Lieutenant Dan Avenarius
Dubuque Police Department
770 Iowa Street
Dubuque, IA 52001
(563) 589-4454 Of.ce
(563) 589-4497 Fax
E-mail: davenari@cityofdubuque.org
Vice Chairman
Investigator Robert “Jerry” Simandl
DuPage County State’s Attorney
130 North County Farm Road
50
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
Wheaton, IL 60187
(630) 681-2435 Of.ce
(630) 682-7047 Fax
E-mail: Rsima80012@aol.com
National Major Gang Task Force
https://www.nmgtf.org
Executive Director
Mr. Ed Cohn
338 South Arlington, Suite 112
Indianapolis, IN 46219
(317) 322-0537 Of.ce
(317) 322-0549 Fax
E-mail: nmgtf@earthlink.net
Ms. Lina Presley
Indiana Department of Corrections
Indiana Government Center, E334
302 West Washington Street
Indianapolis, IN 46204
(317) 233-4773 Of.ce
(800) 713-0733 Fax
E-mail: lpresley@coa.doc.state.in.us
North Carolina Gang Investigators
Association
https://www.ncgangcops.org
President
Lieutenant Mark Bridgeman
Fayetteville Police Department
467 Hay Street
Fayetteville, NC 28301
(910) 322-1530 Of.ce
(910) 433-1028 Fax
E-mail: president@ncgangcops.org
Northern California Gang Investigators
Association
https://www.ncgia.com/
President
Sergeant Larry Rael
Sacramento County Sheriff’s Department
9250 Bond Road
Elk Grove, CA 95624
(916) 875-0443 Of.ce
(916) 875-0407 Fax
E-mail: lrael@sacsheriff.com
Association Address
Post Of.ce Box 276648
Sacramento, CA 95827
Northwest Gang Investigators Association
https://www.nwgia.org
President
Detective Peter Simpson
Portland Police Bureau
1111 Southwest Second Avenue, #1326
Portland, OR 97204
(503) 823-0574 Of.ce
(503) 823-0418 Fax
E-mail: psimpson@police.ci.portland.or.us
Oklahoma Gang Investigators Association
https://www.ogia.net
Chairman of the Board
Special Agent Karen Hess
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
55 North Robinson, #229
Oklahoma City, OK 73102
(405) 297-5066 Phone
(405) 297-5055 Fax
E-mail: hess_karen@hotmail.com
Association Address
3701 Southeast 15th Street
Del City, OK 73115
(405) 670-8763 Fax
Southeastern Connecticut Gang Activities
Group
https://www.segag.org
Director
Of.cer William C. Naholnik
Waterford Police Department
41 Avery Lane
Waterford, CT 06385
(860) 442-9451 Of.ce
(860) 590-6221 Fax
E-mail: nik49@aol.com
Association Address
Post Of.ce Box 634
Waterford, CT 06385-0634
(860) 437-0552 Phone
(860) 437-3120 Fax
Tennessee Gang Investigators Association
https://www.tngia.tn.org
President
Of.cer Forrest “Chip” Bartlett
Shelby County Sheriff’s Of.ce
51
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
Metro Gang Unit
Memphis, TN
(901) 385-5186 Of.ce
E-mail: bartlettf@shelby-sheriff.org
Texas Gang Investigators Association
https://www.tgia.net
President
Mr. Victor Bond
Post Of.ce Box 15436
Houston, TX 77020
(713) 877-5203 Of.ce
(713) 877-5291 Fax
E-mail: vbond@pdq.net
Virginia Gang Investigators Association
https://www.vgia.org
President
Detective Randy Crank
Gang Squad
Norfolk Police Department
3661 East Virginia Beach Boulevard
Norfolk, VA 23502
(757) 664-7161 Of.ce
(757) 456-6076 Pager
(757) 664-7003 Fax
E-mail: Gangcop42@cox.net
Association Address
Post Of.ce Box 1573
Norfolk, VA 23501
(757) 482-4996 Of.ce
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and
Explosives
https://www.atf.treas.gov
Chief Mark Jones
Intelligence Division
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
Room 7000
650 Massachusetts Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20226-0013
(202) 927-5838 Of.ce
(888) 876-0730 Pager
(202) 927-8972 Fax
E-mail: mjones@atfhq.atf.treas.gov
Bureau of Justice Assistance
https://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/BJA/
Bureau of Justice Assistance
810 Seventh Street, NW
Washington, DC 20531
Federal Bureau of Investigation
https://www.fbi.gov
SSA Unit Chief Jeffrey L. Riley
Safe Streets and Gang Unit
Federal Bureau of Investigation
935 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20535
(202) 324-3000; Ext. 4053 Of.ce
Unit Chief Lynn White
Violent Crimes Intelligence Unit
Federal Bureau of Investigation
935 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20535
(202) 324-8653 Of.ce
(202) 324-6137 Fax
E-mail: wlwhit@cospo.osis.gov
Federal Bureau of Prisons
https://www.bop.gov
Mr. William Fall
Organized Crime and Violence Unit
National Drug Intelligence Center
319 Washington Street
Johnstown, PA 15901
(814) 532-4911 Of.ce
(814) 532-4677 Fax
MAGLOCLEN
https://www.iir.com/riss/magloclen/index.htm
Executive Director
Gerard P. Lynch, Esquire
MAGLOCLEN
140 Terry Drive, Suite 100
Newtown, PA 18940
(800) 345-1322; Ext. 335 Of.ce
(215) 504-4930 Fax
E-mail: jlynch@magloclen.riss.net
52
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
National Drug Intelligence Center
https://www.usdoj.gov/ndic/
Supervisor
Mr. Dennis Mehall
Organized Crime and Violence Unit
National Drug Intelligence Center
319 Washington Street, Fifth Floor
Johnstown, PA 15901-1622
(814) 532-4641 Of.ce
(814) 532-4677 Fax
Intelligence Analyst
Mr. Donald L. Shaver
National Drug Intelligence Center
319 Washington Street, Fifth Floor
Johnstown, PA 15901-1622
(814) 532-4751 Of.ce
E-mail: Donald.L.Shaver@usdoj.gov
National Youth Gang Center
https://www.iir.com/nygc/
Mr. John P. Moore
National Youth Gang Center
Post Of.ce Box 12729
Tallahassee, FL 32317
(800) 446-0912; Ext. 226 Of.ce
(850) 386-5356 Fax
E-mail: jmoore@iir.com
Of.ce of National Drug Control Policy
https://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov
Mr. Daniel Lipka
Of.ce of National Drug Control Policy
750 17th Street
Washington, DC 20503
(202) 395-6747 Of.ce
E-mail: Daniel_Lipka@ondcp.eop.gov
RISS Centers
https://www.iir.com/riss/
Chairman, RISS Directors National Policy Group
Gerard P. Lynch, Esquire
140 Terry Drive, Suite 100
Newtown, PA 18940
(800) 345-1322; Ext. 335 Of.ce
(215) 504-4930 Fax
E-mail: jlynch@magloclen.riss.net
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Development
https://www.hud.gov
Investigation Support Division
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
451 Seventh Street, SW, Room 8274
Washington, DC 20410-4500
U.S. Department of Justice
https://www.usdoj.gov
Deputy Chief Bruce Delaplaine
Domestic Security Section
U.S. Department of Justice
Suite 1010
1301 New York Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20530
(202) 307-2163 Of.ce
E-mail: bruce.delaplaine2@usdoj.gov
53
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
NAGIA believes that implementation of the following recommendations will greatly enhance the ability of criminal justice
professionals and communities to effectively address the gang problem together.
Federal Role in the Gang Problem
The gang problem is found throughout the United States, in communities large and small. There is a great need for a
consistent and ongoing response to gangs at all levels, from the local to the state and federal levels. This response should
be based upon best practices and should be .exible enough to deal with both rapidly changing trends and gang problems,
which can vary greatly from one locality to another. Because gangs are a national problem, there is a need for a cohesive
national response that supersedes agency boundaries.
Gang Denial
The education of the public, school administrators, community leaders, and law enforcement of.cials concerning the
detrimental effects of gang denial is critical to controlling gang growth and its impact on the community. Public and
institutional denial of the existence of gangs and a lack of proactive community measures are perhaps the greatest
contributing factors in the alarming increase in the number, size, and strength of gangs. Denying the presence of gangs
in a community signi.cantly hampers effective prevention of gang growth and development during the early stages when
violence is limited and active measures can effectively deter the problem.
Law Enforcement Intelligence Sharing
The sharing of gang intelligence is an issue of great concern throughout all levels of law enforcement. Usually, the most
effective sharing of information takes place informally between individual law enforcement of.cers. The problems endemic
in sharing information among the many federal law enforcement agencies exist to a large degree within some local law
enforcement agencies. Gang, narcotics, homicide, and other units within municipal police departments must ensure
that intelligence is communicated department-wide. In addition, law enforcement administrators need to recognize that
the gang problem transcends geographic borders, making it essential that gang investigators meet regularly with their
colleagues from other jurisdictions and receive advanced training at seminars. Because of the violent nature of gang
members, both inside prisons and in communities, the sharing of information among criminal justice professionals has
become an issue of public safety. NAGIA strongly recommends that all law enforcement agencies consider membership
in their local RISS center to facilitate the sharing of gang-related intelligence through the RISS National Gang Database,
conferences, and information sharing meetings.
Gang De.nitions
There is a need for standardized de.nitions of a gang, gang member, and gang crime. If criminal justice professionals are
to effectively work together and share gang-related intelligence across jurisdictions, it is imperative that they employ the
same standards to determine what constitutes a gang, gang member, and gang crime. Many states do not have a gang
de.nition, either formal or commonly understood, among jurisdictions within that state. In fact, there are many different
de.nitions among jurisdictions at the state and local levels, which make it dif.cult to have a common discussion on gang
issues. The lack of a common de.nition also contributes to the complexity of quantifying the nature and extent of the gang
problem. NAGIA representatives have developed a recommended de.nition of the term “gang” to facilitate a national
discussion:
Gang. A group or association of three or more persons who may have a common identifying sign, symbol, or
name and who individually or collectively engage in, or have engaged in, criminal activity which creates an
atmosphere of fear and intimidation. Criminal activity includes juvenile acts that, if committed by an adult, would
be a crime.
Uniform Crime Reporting of Gang Activity
In order to comprehend the scope and dimension of the gang problem and to accurately measure the effectiveness of antigang
programs, there is a need for uniform crime reporting on gangs and gang activity. Accurate reporting is needed not
only from municipal and county law enforcement agencies but also from schools.
54
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
The standardization of gang de.nitions may help alleviate this problem. The FBI’s full implementation of the National
Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), which collects information reported through the Uniform Crime Reports
(UCRs), will also help in this endeavor.
Correctional Intelligence
There is a lack of intelligence coordination between police departments and corrections of.cials. This is largely due to
the fact that many of.cers are unaware of the wealth of intelligence related to gangs and gang members available within
the corrections community. Corrections of.cials and databases within federal, state, and local prison systems are an
unexploited source of vital intelligence. Many correctional facilities identify gang members, validate gang membership, and
have the capability to monitor mail, telephone calls, and visits. NAGIA encourages police agencies to work cooperatively
with corrections departments through partnerships involving information sharing, fugitive apprehension, and specialized
enforcement.
Gang-Related Training
The explosion of gang activity in the United States has resulted in a tremendous increase in the availability of training
about gangs. However, information presented at some of these training programs and conferences is outdated, inaccurate,
or inappropriate for the local situation. NAGIA believes that there is a need to identify and support worthwhile training
sessions, conferences, instructors, and events related to gang training. This endorsement will help to ensure that only
accurate and up-to-date information is disseminated to criminal justice professionals and others who have a need for
instruction.
Legislation
Increased awareness of gang activity has led to a proliferation of federal, state, and local gang-related laws with varying
degrees of effectiveness. There is a need to identify and track legislation pertaining to gang prevention and suppression
issues and to provide well-informed guidance to legislative sponsors. There is also a need to catalog and evaluate existing
legislation to provide examples of bene.cial statutes to those seeking to shape new legislation. The National Youth Gang
Center maintains a comprehensive list of state and local gang legislation on its Web site at
https://www.iir.com/nygc/maininfo.htm#Legislation.
Gang Of.cers
Experience in working with gangs is important to law enforcement’s success in their anti-gang strategies and goals. Many
police departments have formed gang units and have developed specialized positions within these units. The ability of
of.cers to effectively combat gangs is greatly enhanced by accumulated on-the-job experience. Many police of.cers
and other law enforcement agents routinely rotate into other job assignments every few years, thereby diminishing the
institutional knowledge of a particular unit. Expertise regarding gangs is particularly dif.cult to maintain because gangs on
both local and national levels are unpredictable and readily adapt their methods of operation to changing circumstances.
Therefore, it is critical that at least some of the personnel involved in gang enforcement have extensive experience
working with gangs. NAGIA recommends that law enforcement agency administrators consider these factors when rotating
or reassigning personnel from a gang unit.
Community Responses to Gangs
Law enforcement alone will never successfully eliminate the threat of gangs. Other community agencies and partners,
including schools, juvenile justice agencies, grassroots community organizations, faith-based organizations, social
services organizations, and others, must work together to address the problem of gangs in the local community and to
provide youths with opportunities to opt out of the gang lifestyle. NAGIA strongly recommends that law enforcement
agencies reach out to social service agencies, nonpro.t community assistance agencies, faith-based groups, schools, and
private businesses to promote a comprehensive and coordinated community action plan to deal with gang suppression,
intervention, and prevention.
55
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment 56
NOTES
1Of.ce of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Highlights of the 2002
National Youth Gang Survey, Washington, DC (April 2004).
2Ibid. 3Ibid.
4National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Gangs and Drugs in the United States,
Johnstown, PA (July 2003).
5Of.ce of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Youth Gang Drug Traf.cking,
Washington, DC (December 1999).
6Ibid.
7National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Gangs and Drugs in the United States,
Johnstown, PA (July 2003).
8Ibid.
9Ibid.
10Ibid.
11National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Threat Assessment 2004,
Johnstown, PA (April 2004).
12Ibid.
13National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Gangs and Drugs in the United States,
Johnstown, PA (July 2003).
14Ibid.
15Ibid.
16Ibid.
17Ibid.
18Ibid.
19National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Threat Assessment 2004,
Johnstown, PA (April 2004).
20Ibid.
21The sum of the percentages is greater than 100 because gangs could be identi.ed as associating with more than
one group.
22Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, Asian Organized Crime and Terrorist Activity in Canada, 1999-
2002, Washington, DC (July 2003).
23Criminal Intelligence Service Canada (CISC), 2001 Annual Report on Organized Crime in Canada, Ottawa,
Ontario (2001).
24Ibid.
25International Center, National Institute of Justice, “Chinese Transnational Organized Crime: The Fuk Chin,” https://
www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/international/Chinese.html: accessed 13 December 2004.
26Ibid.
27Middle Atlantic-Great Lakes Organized Crime Law Enforcement Network (MAGLOCLEN), Russian Organized
Crime Assessment, No. 65 (March 1998). All Law Enforcement Sensitive information gleaned from MAGLOCLEN has
been omitted. Sourced information herein should be considered open-source.
28Ibid.
29Ibid.
30Simon Rothstein and Harry MacAdam, “Web of Deceit,” The Sun: News Group Newspapers Ltd. (July 2004).
31Computer Associates International, Inc., “Identity Theft,” https://www3.ca.com/securityadvisor/newsinfo/collateral.
aspx?cid=38599 html: accessed 13 December 2004.
32Jane Hall, “Smelling a Rat Over the Phish,” The Journal: Newcastle Chronicle & Journal Ltd. (May 2004).
33Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2003, Washington,
DC (May 2004).
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
34Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, Probation and Parole in the United States, 2003,
Washington, DC (July 2004).
35Ibid.
36National Major Gang Task Force, A Study of Gangs and Security Threat Groups in America’s Adult Prisons and
Jails, Indianapolis, IN (2002).
37Ibid.
38Pila Martinez, “Novel Attempt to Curb Prison Gang Violence,” Christian Science Monitor, 21 July 1999.
39National Major Gang Task Force, A Study of Gangs and Security Threat Groups in America’s Adult Prisons and
Jails, Indianapolis, IN (2002).
40National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Street Gangs and Prison: A Symbiotic
Relationship, Johnstown, PA (June 1998).
41New England State Police Information Network, Criminal Gangs in New England, 2003 Survey Results.
42National Major Gang Task Force, A Study of Gangs and Security Threat Groups in America’s Adult Prisons and
Jails, Indianapolis, IN (2002).
43National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations, National Gang Threat Assessment (February 2000).
44Information provided by Special Investigative Agent, U.S. Bureau of Prisons, ADX Florence.
45National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations, National Gang Threat Assessment (February 2000).
46Martinez, “Novel Attempt to Curb Prison Gang Violence.”
47“Crime: The Gangs Behind Bars,” Insight Magazine, 28 September 1998.
48Of.ce of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Highlights of the 2001
National Youth Gang Survey, Washington, DC (April 2003).
49Martinez, “Novel Attempt to Curb Prison Gang Violence.”
50U.S. Census Bureau, “Hispanic and Asian Americans Increasing Faster Than Overall Population,” https://www.
census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/race/001839.html: accessed 10 September 2004.
51Of.ce of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, National Youth Gang Survey
Trends from 1996 to 2000, Washington, DC (February 2002).
52https://www.irr.com/nygc/faq.htm: accessed 10 September 2004.
53Middle Atlantic-Great Lakes Organized Crime Law Enforcement Network (MAGLOCLEN), 18th Street, Newtown,
PA (July 2003). All Law Enforcement Sensitive information gleaned from MAGLOCLEN has been omitted. Sourced
information herein should be considered open-source.
54Ibid.
55Ibid.
56Ibid.
57Ibid.
58Of.ce of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, National Youth Gang Survey
Trends From 1996 to 2000, Washington, DC (February 2002).
59Ibid.
60National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations, National Gang Threat Assessment (February 2000).
61John M. Hagedorn, “Girl Gangs: Are Girls Getting More Violent?” Streetwise, Vol. 8, No. 2 (February 1999).
62Of.ce of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Female Gangs: A Focus on
Research, Washington, DC (March 2001).
63Of.ce of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Youth Gangs in Indian
Country (March 2004).
64Ibid.
65Michael H. Guilfoyle, Tribal Justice Specialist, “Native Offender Reentry Programming.”
66This information has been compiled from FBI and NDIC reports and the IOMGIA 2002 International Perspective.
67National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Hells Angels Motorcycle Club, Johnstown, PA
(August 2002).
68National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Bandidos Motorcycle Club,
Johnstown, PA (August 2002).
57
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
69National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Pagans Motorcycle Club, Johnstown, PA (August
2002).
70Ibid.
71Compiled from multiple sources, including the Criminal Intelligence Service Canada; the National Drug
Intelligence Center; Web sites of the Hells Angels, Bandidos, and Outlaws; and other open-source publications.
72Of.ce of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Highlights of the 2002
National Youth Gang Survey, Washington, DC (April 2004).
73Ibid.
74Of.ce of the Texas Attorney General, https://www.oag.state.tx.us/criminal/gangs.shtml.
75Ibid.
76Ibid.
77Statement of Wes Daily, President, East Coast Gang Investigators Association.
78Ibid.
79National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le:
Mara Salvatrucha, Johnstown, PA (November 2002).
80New England State Police Information Network, Criminal Gangs in New England, 2003 Survey Results.
81Ibid.
82Statement of Wes Daily, President, East Coast Gang Investigators Association.
83National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le:
United Blood Nation, Johnstown, PA (September 2003).
84Statement of Wes Daily, President, East Coast Gang Investigators Association.
85National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le: Crips, Johnstown,
PA (November 2002).
86New England State Police Information Network, Criminal Gangs in New England, 2003 Survey Results.
87Statement of Wes Daily, President, East Coast Gang Investigators Association.
88New England State Police Information Network, Criminal Gangs in New England, 2003 Survey Results.
89Ibid.
90Richard Lindberg, “Spotlight on Asian Organized Crime,” https://www.search-international.com/WhatsNew/
WNasiangangs.htm: accessed on 13 December 2004.
91Thomas E. Williamson, Southeastern Connecticut Gang Activities Group, 2004 Connecticut State Gang Threat
Assessment (March 2004).
92Less than 10 percent of of.cials in this region reported moderate or high activity of the gang.
93Less than 10 percent of of.cials in this region reported the presence of the gang.
94National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, New York Drug Threat Assessment, Johnstown,
PA (November 2002).
95Ibid.
96Ibid.
97National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Threat Assessment 2004,
Johnstown, PA (April 2004).
98National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, New York Drug Threat Assessment, Johnstown,
PA (November 2002).
99Ibid.
100Ibid.
101National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Threat Assessment 2004,
Johnstown, PA (April 2004).
102Ibid.
103National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le:
United Blood Nation, Johnstown, PA (September 2003).
104National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le:
18th Street, Johnstown, PA (December 2002).
58
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
105National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Threat Assessment 2004,
Johnstown, PA (April 2004).
106Ibid.
107National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Connecticut Gang Threat Assessment,
Johnstown, PA (July 2003).
108Ibid.
109Ibid.
110Statement of Randy Crank, President, Virginia Gang Investigators Association.
111Mid-Atlantic Regional Gang Investigators Network, Executive Summary (May 2004).
112North Carolina Gang Investigators Association, Gangs in the Tarheel State (March 2004).
113Statement of Randy Crank, Virginia Gang Investigators Association.
114National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le:
Mara Salvatrucha, Johnstown, PA (November 2002).
115North Carolina Gang Investigators Association, Gangs in the Tarheel State (March 2004).
116National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le:
United Blood Nation, Johnstown, PA (September 2003).
117North Carolina Gang Investigators Association, Gangs in the Tarheel State (March 2004).
118Statement of Randy Crank, President, Virginia Gang Investigators Association.
119National Drug Intelligence Center, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le: Bloods, Johnstown, PA (February 2003).
120Statement of Randy Crank, President, Virginia Gang Investigators Association.
121North Carolina Gang Investigators Association, Gangs in the Tarheel State (March 2004).
122National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le:
Crips, Johnstown, PA (November 2002).
123Mid-Atlantic Regional Gang Investigators Network: Executive Summary (May 2004).
124North Carolina Gang Investigators Association, Gangs in the Tarheel State (March 2004).
125National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Florida Drug Threat Assessment, Johnstown, PA
(July 2003).
126Statement of Randy Crank, President, Virginia Gang Investigators Association.
127North Carolina Gang Investigators Association, Gangs in the Tarheel State (March 2004).
128Statement of Randy Crank, President, Virginia Gang Investigators Association.
129Richard Lindberg, “Spotlight on Asian Organized Crime,” https://www.search-international.com/WhatsNew/
WNasiangangs.htm: accessed on 13 December 2004.
130National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le: Gangster
Disciples, Johnstown, PA (February 2003).
131National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Florida Drug Threat Assessment, Johnstown, PA
(July 2003).
132Statement of Randy Crank, President, Virginia Gang Investigators Association.
133Mid-Atlantic Regional Gang Investigators Network, Executive Summary (May 2004).
134North Carolina Gang Investigators Association, Gangs in the Tarheel State (March 2004).
135Texas Gang Investigators Association, Statewide Gang Reports, presented at the 2004 Annual Conference, 28
June–2 July 2004.
136National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Texas Drug Threat Assessment (October 2003).
137National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Threat Assessment 2004,
Johnstown, PA (April 2004).
138Ibid.
139Ibid.
140Ibid.
141Ibid.
142National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, North Carolina Drug Threat Assessment
(April 2003).
59
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment
143National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Threat Assessment 2004,
Johnstown, PA (April 2004).
144Ibid.
145Ibid.
146Ibid.
147Ibid.
148National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Florida Drug Threat Assessment, Johnstown, PA
(July 2003).
149National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Threat Assessment 2004,
Johnstown, PA (April 2004).
150National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le: Bloods,
Johnstown, PA (February 2003).
151National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le:
Outlaws Motorcycle Club, Johnstown, PA (October 2002).
152National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le: Gangster
Disciples, Johnstown, PA (February 2003).
153National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le:
Vice Lord Nation, Johnstown, PA (July 2003).
154Less than ten percent of of.cials in this region reported moderate or high activity of the gang.
155National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le:
Black Peace Stone Nation, Johnstown, PA (August 2003).
156Less than ten percent of of.cials in this region reported the presence of the gang.
157National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Threat Assessment 2004,
Johnstown, PA (April 2004).
158Ibid.
159Ibid.
160Ibid.
161National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Kansas State Drug Assessment (March 2003).
162National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le:
Mara Salvatrucha, Johnstown, PA (November 2002).
163Ibid.
164National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Connecticut Gang Threat Assessment,
Johnstown, PA (July 2003).
165Ibid.
166Ibid.
167Ibid.
168Statement of Ogden City Police Department/Weber County Metro Gang Unit (April 2004).
169National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le: Bloods,
Johnstown, PA (February 2003).
170Ibid.
171National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le:
Crips, Johnstown, PA (November 2002).
172Statement of Wes McBride, President, California Gang Investigators Association.
173National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le:
Mexican Ma.a, Johnstown, PA (July 2003).
174Statement of Wes McBride, President, California Gang Investigators Association.
175National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le:
Nuestra Familia, Johnstown, PA (October 2003).
176National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le:
Hells Angels Motorcycle Club, Johnstown, PA (October 2002).
60
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations
177Ibid.
178National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, Drugs and Crime Gang Pro.le: Bandidos,
Johnstown, PA (October 2002).
179Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department, LA Style: A Street Gang Manual of the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s
Department, No. 43 (October 2000).
180Less than ten percent of of.cials in this region reported moderate or high activity of the gang.
181National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Threat Assessment 2004,
Johnstown, PA (April 2004).
182Ibid.
183Ibid.
184Ibid.
185Ibid.
186Ibid.
187Ibid.
188Ibid.
189Ibid.
190Ibid.
191Ibid.
192Ibid.
193Ibid.
194Statement of Wes McBride, President, California Gang Investigators Association.
61

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