DEFINITION OF INSURGENCY
1-1. An insurgency is organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a constituted government through use of subversion and armed conflict (JP 1-02). It is a protracted politicomilitary struggle designed to weaken government control and legitimacy while increasing insurgent control. Political power is the central issue in an insurgency.
1-2. Each insurgency has its own unique characteristics based on its strategic objectives, its operational environment, available resources, operational method, and tactics (For example, an insurgency may be based on mass mobilization through political action or the FOCO theory. Insurgencies frequently seek to overthrow the existing social order and reallocate power within the country.
1-3. The goal of an insurgency is to mobilize human and material resources in order to form an alternative to the state. This alternative is called the counterstate. The counterstate may have much of the infrastructure possessed by the state itself, but this must normally be hidden, since it is illegal. Thus the counterstate is often referred to by the term «clandestine infrastructure.» As the insurgents gain confidence and power, the clandestine infrastructure may become more open, as observed historically in communist regions during the Chinese Revolution, in South Vietnam after the North Vietnamese 1972 Easter Offensive, and in Colombia in the summer of 1998.
1-4. Successful mobilization provides active and passive support for the insurgency’s programs, operations, and goals. At the national level, mobilization grows out of dissatisfaction by some elite members with existing political, economic, or social conditions. At the regional level, members of an elite have become marginalized (that is, they have become psychologically alienated from the system), and have established links with followers by bringing them into the counterstate. At the local, district and province-levels, local movement representatives called the cadre address local grievances and do recruiting. The cadre gives credit to the insurgent movement for all local solutions. Loyalty to the insurgent movement is normally won through deeds but may occur through appeal to abstract principles. Promises to end hunger or eliminate poverty may appeal to a segment of the population, while appeals to eliminate a foreign presence or establish a government based on religious or political ideology may appeal to others. Nonetheless, these promises and appeals are associated with tangible solutions and deeds.
ELEMENTS OF THE INSURGENCY
1-5. An insurgent organization normally consists of four elements:
Combatants (main forces, regional forces, local forces).
Cadre (local political leaders that are also called the militants).
Mass base (the bulk of the membership).
The proportions relative to the larger movement depend upon the strategic approach adopted by the insurgency. To the extent state presence has been eliminated in particular areas, the four elements can exist openly. To the extent the state remains a continuous or occasional presence, the elements must maintain a clandestine existence.
1-6. Leadership figures engage in command and control of the insurgent movement. They are the idea people and planners. They see solutions to the grievances of society in structural terms. They believe that only altering the way the institutions and practices of society fit together will result in real change. Reforms and changes in personalities are deemed insufficient to «liberate» or «redeem» society. Historically, insurgencies have coalesced around a unifying leader, ideology, and organization. However, this precedent can no longer be assumed. It is possible that many leaders at the head of several organizations with different ideologies but united by a single goal of overthrowing the government or ridding the country of a foreign presence will emerge.
1-7. The combatants do the actual fighting and are often mistaken for the movement itself. This they are not. They exist only to carry out the same functions as the police and armed forces of the state. They only constitute part of the movement, along with the planners and idea people. In many insurgencies the combatants maintain local control, as well as protect and expand the counterstate. Combatants who secure local areas are the local forces. The local forces use terror initially to intimidate and establish local control and later to enforce the will of the leadership. They conduct limited ambushes of government forces and police, also. Combatants who link local areas and provide regional security are the regional forces. Both of these elements normally are tied to specific AO. Main forces, in contrast, are the «heavy» units of the insurgent movement and may be deployed in any AO. Rather than employing terror (local forces) and guerrilla warfare (the main activity of regional forces), they engage in mobile warfare and positional warfare, both subsumed under the «conventional warfare» rubric but different in emphasis when used by insurgents. Due to the growing possibility of separate leaders in different regions with various goals, this force-role linkage may not be present. Instead, independent insurgent leaders may carry on military operations, to include terror, independent of other insurgent forces. Conventional warfare may be minimized. Ultimately, time is on the side of the insurgent. Fear, intimidation and violence–coupled with the television and internet–may achieve the social upheaval the insurgent seeks and force foreign powers to abandon the HN because of pressures from their own people at home.
1-8. The cadre is the political activists and local political leaders of the insurgency. They are referred to as militants since they are actively engaged in struggling to accomplish insurgent goals. The insurgent movement provides guidance and procedures to the cadre, and the cadre use these to assess the grievances in local areas and carry out activities that satisfy those grievances. They then attribute the solutions they have provided to the insurgent movement itself. Deeds are the key to making insurgent slogans meaningful to the population. Larger societal issues, such as foreign presence, facilitate such action, because these larger issues may be blamed for life’s smaller problems. Insurgents, however, may have no regard for popular dissent or local grievances. The insurgents play by no rules, and they will use fear as a means to intimidate the populace and thereby prevent cooperation with the HN.
1-9. The mass base consists of the followers of the insurgent movement that are the population of the counterstate. Mass base members are recruited and indoctrinated by the cadre, who implement instructions and procedures provided by the insurgent leadership. Though they do not actively fight for the insurgency, mass base members provide intelligence and supplies. Mass base members may continue in their normal positions in society, but many will either lead second, clandestine lives for the insurgent movement, or even pursue new, full-time positions within the insurgency. Combatants normally begin as members of the mass base before becoming armed manpower.
1-10. The insurgent leadership thus provides organizational and managerial skills to transform regions into an effective base for armed political action, while the cadre accomplishes this same transformation at the community and mobilized individual level. What results, as in any armed conflict, is a contest of resource mobilization and force deployment. A state is challenged by a counterstate. No objective force level guarantees victory for either side. It is frequently stated that a 10 to 1 or 20 to 1 ratio of counterinsurgents to insurgents is necessary for counterinsurgency victory. In reality, research has demonstrated time and again there are no valid ratios that, when met, guarantee victory. As in conventional war, correlation of forces in an insurgency depends upon the situation. Though objective and valid forcecorrelation ratios do not exist, counterinsurgency has been historically manpower intensive. Time, which often works on the side of the insurgent, just as often places serious constraints upon counterinsurgent courses of action.
ORIGINS AND CAUSES
1-11. Rising up against constituted authority has been present throughout history. The causes for such uprisings have been as numerous as human conditions. Uprisings against indigenous regimes have normally been termed «rebellions.» Uprisings against an external occupying power have normally been termed «resistance movements.» Historical particulars can at times combine the two.
1-12. Rebellions and resistance movements are transformed into an insurgency by their incorporation into an armed political campaign. (See Figure 1-1, page 1-4.) A popular desire to resist is used by an insurgent movement to accomplish the insurgents’ political goal. The insurgency thus mounts a political challenge to the state through the formation of, or desire to, create a counterstate.
1-13. The desire to form a counterstate grows from the same causes that galvanize any political campaign. These causes can range from the desire for greater equity in the distribution of resources (poverty alone is rarely, if ever, sufficient to sustain an insurgency) to a demand that foreign occupation end. Increasingly, religious ideology has become a catalyst for insurgent movements. The support of the people, then, is the center of gravity. It must be gained in whatever proportion is necessary to sustain the insurgent movement (or, contrariwise, to defeat it). As in any political campaign, all levels of support are relative. The goal is mobilization such that the enemy may be defeated. This necessarily will depend as much upon the campaign approach (that is, operational art) and tactics adopted as upon more strategic concerns of «support.» Operational and tactical use of violence as an insurgent strategy has become increasingly commonplace. Objects of violence can be anything the insurgents deem to be obstructions to their cause. This can be HN forces, foreign forces, aid workers, civilians who do not accept the insurgents’ claims, and infrastructure.
1-14. Violence is the most potent weapon available to insurgents. Nonetheless, violence can alienate when not linked to a vision of a better life. Violence is often accompanied by a variety of nonviolent means that act as a potent weapon in an external propaganda war and assist recruiting. Historically, astute movements have recognized the efficacy of both means to the extent they have fielded discrete units charged with nonviolent action (for example, strikes in the transportation sector) to supplement violent action. The insurgents in Algeria rarely defeated French forces in the field; they employed indiscriminate violence, successfully initiated nonviolent strikes, developed associated propaganda for external use, and thereby handily won their war. «People’s war» in its Chinese and Vietnamese variants did this also.
Figure 1-1. Insurgency Development
1-15. Insurgent movements begin as «fire in the minds of men.» Insurgent leaders commit themselves to building a new world. They construct the organization to carry through this desire. Generally, popular grievances become insurgent causes when interpreted and shaped by the insurgent leadership. The insurgency grows if the cadre that is local insurgent leaders and representatives can establish a link between the insurgent movement and the desire for solutions to grievances sought by the local population. This link does not always exist. Selfserving insurgent leaders with no regard for local conditions may launch an insurgency, even if the population supports the HN and has few grievances. This can occur when the HN government is weak or even nonexistent because of other factors. If the cadre is able to indoctrinate and control the mobilized local manpower, often by creating a climate of fear, and the cadre respond to higher commands with independent tactical action, the insurgency will be operationally and strategically unified. If the opposite is true, the insurgency will remain uncoordinated and decentralized.
1-16. Insurgent leaders will exploit opportunities created by government security force actions. The behavior of security forces is critical. Lack of security force discipline leads to alienation, and security force abuse of the populace is a very effective insurgent recruiting tool. Consequently, specific insurgent tactical actions are often planned to frequently elicit overreaction from security force individuals and units. Overreaction can result from poorly drawn ROE and even strategic and operational planning that abets brutalizing a recalcitrant population. Increasingly, the use of religious shrines for offensive insurgent actions can be seen as attempts to achieve such an overreaction. Such actions can create a perception of HN and foreign military forces as oppressors rather than as liberators.
1-17. Insurgent doctrine determines how insurgents actually implement the two types of insurgency. A defensive insurgency has much in common with a resistance movement, since the counterstate already exists and will normally adopt overt techniques necessary for selfdefense. An offensive insurgency, on the other hand, is faced with the task of creating the counterstate from scratch. To do this, there are two basic approaches.
Mass mobilization. A first approach is to emphasize mobilization of the masses. This course places a premium upon political action by the cadre in local areas, with strategic and operational directives coming from above. Emphasizing mass mobilization results in a hierarchical, tightly controlled, coordinated movement. The insurgent movement that results will resemble a pyramid in its manpower distribution, with the combatants the smallest part of the movement (the apex of the pyramid).
Armed action. A second approach emphasizes armed action. This course favors violence rather than mass mobilization and normally results in an inverted pyramid, with the combatants themselves the bulk of the movement. This was the approach taken by Castro in Cuba during the 1950s and may be an approach some insurgents in Iraq have taken against the post-Saddam government, although some efforts to mobilize have been reported.
1-18. A mass base sustains the first approach. The second approach has a much smaller support base. The support base will not have the numbers of the mass base generated by the mobilization approach.
1-19. If emphasis is upon mass mobilization, the combatants exist to facilitate the accomplishment of the political goals of the insurgent movement. In local areas, terror and guerrilla action are used to eliminate resistance, either from individuals who are opposed to the movement or from the local armed representatives of the state, initially the police and militia, but later the military. Main force units, which are guerrilla units that have been «regularized» or turned into rough copies of government units but are usually more mobile and lightly armed, are used to deal with the state’s inevitable deployment of the military. The purpose of main forces is to engage in mobile (or maneuver) warfare. The intent is force-onforce action to destroy government main force units. Tactics may include major battles as well as ambushes and small-scale engagements. These battles and engagements result in the securing and expansion of the counterstate (which may be clandestine in all or part), but are not designed to seize and hold positions as in conventional warfare. This occurs only in positional warfare. Though the terminology is drawn especially from Soviet usage, the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) and the Viet Cong (VC) used both mobile and positional warfare throughout the war in Vietnam. Examples of insurgencies that used the mass mobilization approach follow:
The NVA and VC frequently deployed battalions and regiments using classic mobile warfare, even as terror and guerrilla action continued against US forces from 1965 until the US withdrawal from Vietnam in 1973.
Classic positional warfare was seen three times in the Vietnam War: the Tet Offensive in JanuaryFebruary 1968; the Spring 1972 «Easter Offensive,» which resulted in the permanent seizure and loss of portions of South Vietnamese territory; and the Spring 1975 offensive, which saw the fall of South Vietnam and its absorption into a unified Vietnam. In the latter two of these campaigns, enemy divisions and corps were used, with terror and guerrilla action assuming the role of special operations in support of conventional operations. During Tet, the NVA employed all 52 VC battalions exclusively, and multiple battalions attacked objectives simultaneously, though these battalions were under individual command and control.
More recently, in El Salvador, where the United States successfully supported a counterinsurgency, government forces twice, in 1981 and 1989, had to beat back «positional warfare» offensives designed to seize widespread areas, including portions of the nation’s capital.
In Colombia, where the US is similarly involved in support of the counterinsurgency, the insurgents of FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia) initiated their mobile warfare phase in 1996. There followed a string of Colombian Army defeats that culminated in a FARC positional warfare attack that seized a department capital, Mitu, in mid-1998. The relief of Mitu galvanized a military reform effort that led to government success in a half dozen major mobile war battles fought between 1998 and 2001. The largest of these involved a FARC force of eight battalion-equivalents engaged by an equal number of Colombian Army counterguerrilla battalions. FARC consequently returned to an emphasis upon terror and guerrilla action.
In Nepal, where US assistance has played an important role in government counterinsurgency, the ‘mass mobilization approach adopted by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), or CPN (M), has progressed in classic fashion. Widespread use of terror and guerrilla action has been complemented by mobile warfare to overrun government positions of up to company size. Mobile warfare targets have been chosen operationally (that is, as part of campaign planning) to position the CPN (M) for anticipated positional war offensives, notably against major population centers.
1-20. If emphasis is on the second approach, armed action, the political goal is to be accomplished primarily by violence rather than mass mobilization. The insurgents attempt to inflict such a level of casualties and destruction the state is incapable or unwilling to continue counterinsurgency actions. Both approaches emphasize inflicting casualties. The distinction is whether mobilization or armed insurrection is the initial emphasis. Insurgents may also employ terrorist tactics if they lack a mass base, do not have the time needed to create such a base, or have objectives that do not require such a base. In this approach, the combatant force rarely moves beyond terrorist and guerrilla actions. Units are small and specialized, frequently no more than squad or platoon sized. Sympathizers provide recruits for the support base, but these sympathizers are actively involved only occasionally, though they are often central to the information warfare component of the insurgent campaign.
An illustration of the armed action approach is «The Troubles» of 196898 in Northern Ireland (Ulster). An initial mass mobilization approach followed by the Provisional Irish Republican Army was penetrated by the state; hence it was abandoned in favor of a cellular «active service unit» methodology. Normally composed of no more than 300 people, the active service unit network engaged almost exclusively in terror actions and was sustained by a support base that numbered only in the thousands out of a total 1.5 million population in an area the size of Connecticut. Sympathizers came overwhelmingly from a minority within the Catholic community, thus forming a minority within a minority. At its peak, however, this sympathetic base proved capable of mustering 17 percent of the votes in democratic elections and served to keep open to question the legitimacy of British rule, which was actually favored by a substantial majority.
More recently, the insurgents in Iraq and Afghanistan have used the armed action approach. Terror and low-level guerrilla action have been focused on the indigenous supporters and infrastructure of the new regimes in Baghdad and Kabul. Simultaneously, attacks on US forces have sought to inflict casualties to break the will of the US public to continue. The insurgents have recognized that the indigenous regimes cannot continue in the short-term without US backing and assistance. Neither will the new regimes be able to continue if their populations can be suitably terrorized into sullen neutrality as the US begins to withdraw.
DYNAMICS OF INSURGENCY
1-21. There are seven dynamics that are common to most insurgencies. These dynamics provide a framework for analysis that can reveal the insurgency’s strengths and weaknesses. Although analysts can examine the following dynamics separately, they must study their interaction to fully understand the insurgency. These seven dynamics are–
Environment and geography.
Phasing and timing.
1-22. Leadership is critical to any insurgency. Insurgency is not simply random political violence. It is directed and focused political violence. It requires leadership to provide vision, direction to establish and set the long-term way ahead, short-term guidance, coordination, and organizational coherence. Insurgent leaders must make their cause known to the people and gain popular support. Although, theoretically, the insurgent leader desires to gain popular support for the cause, that desire is often accompanied by a terror campaign against those who do not support the insurgents’ goals. Their key tasks are to break and supplant the ties between the people and the government, and to establish legitimacy for their movement. Their education, family, social and religious connections, and positions may contribute to their ability to think clearly, communicate, organize, and lead a an insurgency; or their lack of education and connections may delay or impair their access to positions where they are able to exercise leadership.
1-23. Insurgencies are dynamic political movements, resulting from real or perceived grievance or neglect that leads to alienation from an established government. Alienated elite members advance alternatives to existing conditions. (Culture defines elites. For example, in most of the world educators and teachers are members of the elite; in Islamic and many Catholic nations, religious leaders are elite members.) As their movement grows, leaders decide which body of «doctrine» to adopt. In the mass mobilization approach, leaders recruit, indoctrinate, and deploy the cadre necessary to carry out the actions of the movement. In the armed action approach, there is often a much more decentralized mode of operations, but this is usually guided by a central organization. Extreme decentralization results in a movement that rarely functions as a coherent body but is nevertheless capable of inflicting substantial casualties and damage.
1-24. The power base of some insurgencies is collective and does not depend on specific leaders or personalities to be effective. Such insurgencies are easier to penetrate but recover rapidly when they lose key personnel. Other organizations depend on a charismatic personality to provide cohesion, motivation, and a focal point for the movement. Organizations led in this way can make decisions and initiate new actions rapidly, but they are vulnerable to disruptions if key personalities are removed or co-opted.
1-25. Effective analysis of an insurgency requires interpreting strategic, operational, and tactical objectives. Understanding the root causes of the insurgency is essential to analyzing the insurgents’ objectives. The strategic objective is the insurgents’ desired end state: the seizure of political power and the overthrow of an existing government. Operational objectives are the decisive points (military, political, and ideological) along lines of operation toward the strategic objective, and they are the means to link tactical goals with strategic end states. One of the political decisive points is the total destruction of government legitimacy. Tactical objectives are the immediate aims of insurgent acts. Tactical objectives can be psychological and physical in nature. Some examples include the dissemination of PSYOP products, intimidation (a psychological objective), and the attack and seizure of a key facility (a physical objective).
1-26. In its ideology an insurgency sets forth a political alternative to the existing state. Both theoretically and actually, it offers a vision of a counterstate. The most powerful ideologies tap latent, emotive concerns of the populace, such as the desire for justice, the creation of an idealized religious state, or liberation from foreign occupation. Ideology influences the insurgents’ perception of the environment by providing the prism, to include vocabulary and analytical categories, through which the situation is assessed. The result is that ideology shapes the movement’s organization and operational methods.
ENVIRONMENT AND GEOGRAPHY
1-27. Environment and geography, including cultural and demographic factors, affect all participants in a conflict. The manner in which insurgents and counterinsurgents adapt to these realities creates advantages and disadvantages for each. The effects of these factors are immediately visible at the tactical level, where they are perhaps the predominant influence on decisions regarding force structure, and doctrine (including TTP). Insurgency in an urban environment often presents a different set of planning considerations than in rural environments. These planning considerations affect structure, and TTP directly.
1-28. The need for access to external resources and sanctuaries has been a constant throughout the history of insurgencies. Rarely, if ever, has an insurgent force been able to obtain the arms and equipment (particularly ammunition) necessary for decisive action from within the battle area. External support can provide political, psychological, and material resources that might otherwise be limited or totally unavailable. 1-29. A recent phenomenon has been the advent of internal sanctuaries. These may be in the form of religious structures. They may be large cities where neither HN nor external military forces are sufficiently strong to counter the insurgents.
PHASING AND TIMING
1-30. Insurgencies often pass through common phases of development. The conceptualization generally followed by insurgents is drawn from that postulated by Mao Zedong. Regardless of its provenance, movements as diverse as communist or Islamic insurgencies have used the Maoist conceptualization because it is logical and based upon the mass mobilization emphasis. It states that insurgents are first on the strategic defensive (Phase I), move to stalemate (Phase II), and finally go over to the offensive (Phase III). Strategic movement from one phase to another incorporates the operational and tactical activity typical of earlier phases. It does not end them. The North Vietnamese explicitly recognized this reality in their «war of interlocking» doctrine, which held that all «forms of warfare» occur simultaneously, even as a particular form is paramount.
1-31. Not all insurgencies experience every phase, and progression through all phases is not a requirement for success. The same insurgent movement may be in different phases in different regions of a country. Successful insurgencies can also revert to an earlier phase when under pressure, resuming development when favorable conditions return.
1-32. Political organization occurs throughout all phases. While on the defensive, however, in Phase I per Mao, a movement will necessarily fight the «war of the weak,» emphasizing terror and guerrilla action. These will be used to eliminate resistance from individuals and local government presence, especially the police. Invariably, the government must commit its main force units (normally the army) to reclaim what it has lost. Knowing this, insurgents form their own main force units. These are used to defeat government forces in detail as the latter disperse to engage in area domination. It is through such action that stalemate, Phase II, is achieved. The government’s forces in the contest of armed power are systematically neutralized through mobile (or maneuver), force-on-force warfare. Only in Phase III does a transition to the holding of position occur (hence the term, «positional warfare»).
1-33. If the insurgents adopt the armed action approach, these phases do not necessarily apply. Inflicting an unsustainable level of pain on HN or external military forces may eliminate the need to form main force units. Pressure from within the HN or country providing the forces may lead to capitulation or withdrawal. In attacking democratic societies, insurgents using this approach attempt to tap the purported aversion of democratic societies to protracted, costly conflicts that appear endless. They seek to break the will of the state to continue the struggle.
STATE APPROACH TO INSURGENCY
1-34. A successful counterinsurgency results in the neutralization by the state of the insurgency and its effort to form a counterstate. While many abortive insurgencies are defeated by military and police actions alone, if an insurgency has tapped into serious grievances and has mobilized a significant portion of the population, simply returning to the status quo may not be an option. Reform may be necessary, but reform is a matter for the state, using all of its human and material resources. Security forces are only one such resource. The response must be multifaceted and coordinated, yet states typically charge their security forces with «waging counterinsurgency.» This the security forces cannot do alone.
1-35. The state first decides upon its goal (restoration of legitimate government writ), then, produces a plan to accomplish that end. All elements of national power are assigned their roles in carrying out the plan. The government establishes the legal framework and command and control (C2) mechanisms to enable the plan to be implemented.
The legal framework normally includes a series of extraordinary measures that are associated with emergency situations, or even martial law. It will frequently expand military powers into areas delegated solely to the police in «normal times.»
Historically, effective C2 architecture has involved setting up local coordinating bodies with representation from all key parties. This local body directs the counterinsurgency campaign in the AO concerned, though one individual will have the lead. Minimally, such a coordinating body includes appropriate representatives from the civil authority, the military, the police, the intelligence services, and (though not always) the civil population. The most effective use of coordinating bodies has given permanent-party individuals (for example, district officers) responsibility for counterinsurgency C2 in their AOs and control over civil or military assets sent into their AOs. Reinforced intelligence bodies, in particular, have been assigned as permanent party. Involvement of local officials and civilians can defeat the insurgents’ attempt to undermine the political system.
1-36. HN military and police forces must be the most visible force to the people. Security forces sent into an area to engage in counterinsurgency perform as follows:
Strategically, they serve as the shield for carrying out reform. It is imperative that HN military and police forces protect the populace and defend their own bases while simultaneously fighting an insurgency.
Operationally, they systematically restore government control.
Tactically, security forces eliminate insurgent leadership, cadre, and combatants, through death and capture, by co-opting individual members, or by forcing insurgents to leave the area. This is analogous to separating the fish from the sea. The local populations (that also provide the insurgent mass base) are then secure and able to engage in normal activities. The forces also assist with civic action projects. These actions convey to the people a sense of progress and concern by the government.
1-37. The counterinsurgency plan analyzes the basis of the insurgency in order to determine its form, centers of gravity, and insurgent vulnerabilities. These dictate the most effective type force to employ (either police, militia, and military; or primarily military and police). The counterinsurgency plan details the scheme to reclaim what has been lost and establish priority of effort and timelines. Concurrently, it outlines how the government intends to secure the critical infrastructure of the state and the government’s centers of power.
1-38. Counterinsurgency operations must balance elimination of grievances (that is, reform, to include elimination of human rights abuses) and security force action that eliminates the insurgents. The security forces provide the populace the protection necessary for the restoration of government presence, basic services, and control.
1-39. Counterinsurgency plans and operations exploit shifts in the internal or external situation that work against the insurgent and favor the state. This normally involves an extended period of time, a «protracted war.» This makes it difficult for representative governments to sustain counterinsurgency campaigns, particularly in the present world environment where there appears to be a lack of overt, sustained agreement regarding strategic interests, ends and means, and operational and tactical concerns.
1-40. When supporting a counterinsurgency, the US and its multinational partners assist the HN in implementing a sustainable approach. To the extent the HN has its basic institutions and security forces intact, the burden upon US and multinational forces and resources is lessened. To the extent the HN is lacking basic institutions and functions, the burden upon the US and multinational forces is increased. In the extreme, rather than building upon what is, the US and other nations will find themselves creating elements (such as local forces and government institutions) of the society they have been sent to assist. Military forces thus become involved in nation building while simultaneously attempting to defeat an insurgency. US forces often lead because the US military) can quickly project and sustain a force. This involves them in a host of current activities regarded as nonstandard, from supervising elections to restoring power and facilitating and conducting schooling.
1-41. Leaders and planning staff need to be aware that there will always be constraints upon the prosecution of counterinsurgency. Constraints must be identified and analyzed systematically, because they impact upon the conduct of operations at all levels. They ought to be reevaluated regularly. The bottom line is that forces have to operate in the environment as it is, not as they might wish it to be. Some constraints may include–
Time. Strategic or political factors may dictate the time frame during which conditions for success must be achieved. (See Chapter 2).
Means. The means (for example, weapons, equipment, mature concepts, and TTP) available are likely to be limited. (See Chapter 3 and Appendix C).
Legal. The international, US, and HN legal frameworks place constraints on the conduct of operations (for example, ROE, powers of arrest, ability to prosecute and rules of evidence, powers of detention). (See Chapter 2, and Appendix J.)
Geography. In addition to terrain factors, there may be areas where, for reasons of political, cultural, religious, or environmental sensitivity, the ability to conduct operations is constrained, moderated, limited, or prohibited (for example, cross-border operations, hot pursuit, and bombing sanctuaries.) (See Chapters 2 and 4, and the six associated appendixes).
Domestic and international considerations. Events in the theater of operations are likely to be subject to media scrutiny and reporting (both accurate and inaccurate). It is a reality that US domestic and international considerations must be weighed, and these may limit how operations are conducted. (See Chapters 2 and 3, and Appendix C.)
Multinational partners. Multinational partners may have differing political and legal imperatives. The need to maintain cohesiveness among members of a coalition may affect US force behavior. (See Chapter 2.)
Host nation. The HN’s leadership, culture, and politics (among many possible factors) generate a wide range of pressures, some conflicting, upon the military that must be considered carefully. These create a further source of constraints or limitations. (See Chapter 2, Appendix A, and Appendix B.)
Command and Control in a Counterinsurgency Environment
SECTION I INTRODUCTION
2-1. Counterinsurgency has certain imperatives that make planning for it different from other missions. Planners consider these imperatives when developing counterinsurgency plans. These imperatives are–
Facilitate establishment or reestablishment of a legitimate HN government.
Counterinsurgency requires perseverance.
Foster popular support for the HN and US governments.
Prepare to perform functions and conduct operations that are outside normal scope of training.
Coordinate with US governmental departments and agencies, and with HN, nongovernmental, and foreign agencies.
2-2. Insurgencies are protracted politico-military struggles with political power as the central issue. Therefore, military planners ensure a closer, more effective coordination of military operations between the country team, interagency personnel, the HN, and military organizations than would exist during conventional operations. This coordination is normally at the strategic and operational levels. US government policy towards the HN and the insurgents is the overriding determinant for military action.
2-3. Planners consider long-term effects of all US assistance efforts before executing counterinsurgency operations. This long-term consideration is especially important in building HN development and defense self-sufficiency, both of which may require large investments of time and materiel. Counterinsurgency operations also require extensive logistic planning because of the probability of having to provide food and shelter for displaced persons and construction or repair of services such as water. Planners also recognize the ultimate objective is to assist the HN in establishing a government that is legitimate, responsive to the people and capable of meeting their needs, and worthy of their loyalty.
2-4. Planners tailor military support to other elements of counterinsurgency operations while considering the environment and the specific needs of the HN. They consider the threat, as well as local political, tribal, religious, social, and economic factors when developing counterinsurgency plans. Overcoming the tendency to use a US frame of reference is important because this potentially damaging tendency can result in equipment, training, and infrastructure not at all suitable for the HN.
2-5. Planners understand that a basic premise of the counterinsurgency approach is the ultimate responsibility for IDAD rests with the HN. US planners assess all counterinsurgency plans against this precept.
2-6. Political and military leaders realistically evaluate troop requirements in a counterinsurgency environment. In addition to those tasks inherent in any military situation–such as base security and offensive operations–some tasks occur with greater frequency in counterinsurgency and deserve special attention. Among these are–
Urban operations. Protection of government facilities.
Protection of infrastructure.
Protection of commercial enterprises vital to the HN economy.
Protection of cultural facilities.
Prevention of looting. Military police functions.
Close interaction with civilians.
Assistance with reconstruction projects.
Securing the HN borders.
Training or retraining HN military forces.
Establishing and maintaining local government credibility.
2-7. Faced with these additional tasks, the joint force may be required to provide more units, and a different mix of units, than would be required for operations against a conventional force the same approximate size as the insurgent force. The preponderance of many of these units may only be available in the Reserve Components. All planning considers the long-term implications and second- and-third order effects of counterinsurgency missions. Counterinsurgency is a long-term approach and effort requiring support from political and military leaders. Additionally, leaders must recognize counterinsurgency operations may involve nation building. Counterinsurgency often involves nation building, but not all nation building involves counterinsurgency.
2-8. At all levels, the conduct (planning, preparing, execution, and assessment) of counterinsurgency operations involves coordination among HN forces and agencies, US organizations, multinational partners, and NGOs that may influence the mission.
2-9. Planning for a counterinsurgency focuses on the following conditions that the force must establish to be successful.
A SECURE POPULACE
2-10. Security of the populace is an imperative. This is security from the influence of the insurgents initially. The population is then mobilized, armed, and trained to protect itself. Effective security allows local political and administrative institutions to operate freely and commerce to flourish.
ESTABLISHED LOCAL POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS
2-11. Establishing conditions favorable for the development of HN governmental institutions consistent with US objectives. These conditions include the establishment of law enforcement and freely elected political leaders where possible, public information, health care, schools, public works, and fire fighting capabilities.
CONTRIBUTING LOCAL GOVERNMENT
2-12. Contributing local government is both tangible and psychological. Local security forces must reinforce and be integrated into the plan at every stage. This local integration is constantly emphasized with the local and HN police, and civil and military leaders through deeds to ensure these forces have great visibility with the populace. Psychologically, the populace must be assured continuously and effectively that conditions are becoming better to counter insurgent propaganda. Counterinsurgency operations must establish conditions that contribute to HN and local government effectiveness.
NEUTRALIZE INSURGENT CAPABILITIES
2-13. Neutralize insurgent capabilities to exploit grievances. Work with local authorities and leaders to resolve the issues creating concern in order to legitimize governmental institutions.
INFORMATION FLOW FROM LOCAL SOURCES
2-14. Facilitate and use information and intelligence obtained from local sources to gain access to the insurgent’s economic and social base of support, order of battle, tactics, techniques, and procedures.
Command and Control in a Counterinsurgency Environment
SECTION II ROLE OF THE ARMY IN COUNTERINSURGENCY
2-15. The role of the Army in counterinsurgency operations is to administer, train for, and successfully conduct full spectrum operations, with great emphasis on stability operations. Counterinsurgency is a type of stability operation. (See FM 3-07, chapter 3.) Each regional combatant commander advises the Department of State in developing peacetime military engagement packages appropriate for the situation. Each combatant command provides military forces under the program as well as military advice, tactical and technical training, and intelligence and logistic support. Army forces help HN police, paramilitary, and military forces perform counterinsurgency, area security, or local security operations. They advise and assist in finding, dispersing, capturing, and destroying the insurgent force. Army forces emphasize the training of HN national, state, and local forces to perform essential defense functions. They aim to provide a secure environment in which developmental programs can take effect while respecting the rights and dignity of the people.
2-16. US policymakers determine the scope of military participation based on US interests and the desires of the HN. The US military aims to improve the effectiveness of the HN security forces and to assist in preventing support for the insurgents. To prevent the overthrow of a government friendly to the US or to provide security while a new government is established, US forces may be required to engage in combat, either unilaterally or with multinational or HN forces. As quickly as possible, though, HN military and police must assume the primary combat role. A long-term US combat role may undermine the legitimacy of the HN government and risks converting the conflict into a US-only war. That combat role can also further alienate cultures that are hostile to the US. On the occasion when the threat to US interests is great and indirect means have proven insufficient, preemptive US combat operations may be required. Direct use of US combat forces in counterinsurgency operations remains a policy option for the President, and Army forces provide it when required. HN forces should conduct stability operations when necessary, employing concepts such as population and resource control (see Appendix C). When US forces are involved, the HN must provide representatives to assist US forces in their contacts with local populations.
2-17. US forces may conduct offensive operations to disrupt and destroy insurgent combat formations. These operations prevent the insurgents from attacking government-controlled areas. They also disrupt insurgent efforts to consolidate and expand areas already under their control. US combat forces may conduct stability operations in support of HN stability operations or to assist the HN to expand its mobilization base. US forces may also be required to secure HN borders to prevent third-nation elements from supporting or joining the insurgency. Success in stability operations enables the HN to resume the military aspects of its counterinsurgency campaign and creates conditions in which US combat forces may withdraw.
Command and Control in a Counterinsurgency Environment
SECTION III PLANNING CONSIDERATION FOR COUNTERINSURGENCY
2-18. Insurgencies are armed political movements, protracted politico-military struggles using guerrilla tactics and terrorist activities. Planners analyze the mission and develop counterinsurgency concepts to defeat each element of an insurgency. This is done in close cooperation with other governmental agencies to ensure all plans are fully integrated. Army planners use the military decision making process (see FM 5-0) during counterinsurgency planning. (See JP 5-0 for joint planning procedures).
2-19. Before beginning counterinsurgency planning, the staff conducts a thorough mission analysis of the operational environment and threat. This mission analysis establishes the operational framework for counterinsurgency planning. Give special consideration to the following areas.
VIABILITY OF THE HOST NATION GOVERNMENT
2-20. Determine this in conjunction with other governmental agencies and the HN. If there is an existing government, the legitimacy and viability of the existing government may determine the level of military and civilian agency support required.
THREATS TO HOST NATION INTERNAL DEFENSE AND DEVELOPMENT (IDAD)
2-21. Threats may be specific, such as insurgents or illicit drugs, or they may be more general as in instability and social unrest. This requires civil and military leaders to also target long-term causes rather than short-term symptoms. In the event of an insurgency, planners must identify the basis of an insurgency in order to determine its form, centers of gravity, and the root cause. This is key because the form and centers of gravity dictate the most effective type force to employ (police, militia, and military or primarily military and police) and identify insurgent vulnerabilities. A counterinsurgency plan describes a concept of operations to reclaim any cities and towns that have been lost and establish priority of effort and timelines. Concurrently, the critical infrastructure of the state and the government’s centers of power are identified and secured.
HOST NATION SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT
2-22. Counterinsurgency supports IDAD operations in a manner acceptable to the HN’s political and cultural realities. (IDAD is a type of stability operation. See FM 3-07.) Planners consider factors such as the effectiveness of the HN leadership and government as well as existing treaties and the social and economic infrastructure. This assessment may lead to the conclusion the best solution from a US perspective may not be the best solution for the supported HN. This issue is resolved through diplomatic channels. Political authorities may determine that stability operations other than counterinsurgency or foreign humanitarian assistance (a support operation) are the most effective solution for the US and the HN governments.
2-23. An accurate intelligence estimate is essential to identify the threat upon which to base counterinsurgency efforts. The intelligence estimate supporting counterinsurgency operations has an orientation quite different from that of a conventional estimate. A comprehensive and intimate knowledge of the environment is essential in building this estimate.
2-24. The conventional J-2 intelligence estimate concentrates on enemy situation, enemy capabilities, an analysis of those capabilities, and conclusions drawn from that analysis. In counterinsurgency, however, planners expand this concept beyond conventional enemy analysis to focus more on the local population and its probable reactions to potential US or insurgent actions. This emphasis requires knowledge of the ethnic, tribal, racial, economic, scientific, technical, religious, and linguistic groups in the HN, as well as their locations and an understanding of how they may perceive future operations. Understanding the operating environment and the HN’s social, economic, and political order are essential to conducting counterinsurgency operations that support the local IDAD program. The counterinsurgency intelligence planner views the battle space very differently from that of the conventional planner.
CIVIL-MILITARY OPERATIONS ESTIMATE
2-25. The CMO estimate examines each military course of action for CMO requirements and CA assistance and reviews potential operations for any civil administration implications. CMO will also complete area studies where operations are likely. For military operations to support counterinsurgency, these assessments focus on social, economic, and political factors that relate to existing or potential lawlessness, subversion, or insurgency. These assessments may include overlays that show local demographics, civil supply support, public utilities, and population displacement. CMO planning must be incorporated into all counterinsurgency planning and operations. (See Appendix A.)
2-26. Planning at the tactical level in counterinsurgency operations requires a far greater analysis of civil considerations than in conventional operations. Civil considerations comprise six characteristics, expressed in the memory aid, ASCOPE. (See FM 6-0, Appendix B.) Consider the following when analyzing civil considerations for a counterinsurgency mission.
2-27. This characteristic addresses terrain analysis from a civilian perspective. Analyze how key civilian areas affect the missions of respective forces and how military operations affect these areas. Factors to consider include political boundaries, locations of government centers, by-type enclaves, special regions (for example, mining or agricultural), trade routes, and possible settlement sites.
2-28. Structures include traditional high-payoff targets, protected cultural sites, and facilities with practical applications. The analysis is a comparison how a structure’s location, functions, and capabilities can support operations as compared to costs and consequences of such use.
2-29. Assess capabilities in terms of those required to save, sustain, or enhance life, in that order. Capabilities can refer to the ability of local authorities to provide key functions and services. These can include areas needed after combat operations and contracted resources and services.
2-30. Consider all nonmilitary groups or institutions in the AO. These may be indigenous, come from a third country or US agencies. They influence and interact with the populace, force, and each other. Current activities, capabilities, and limitations are some of the information necessary to build situational understanding. This becomes often a union of resources and specialized capabilities.
2-31. People is a general term describing all nonmilitary personnel that military forces encounter in the AO. This includes those personnel outside the AO whose actions, opinions, or political influence can affect the mission. Identify the key communicators and the formal and informal processes used to influence people. In addition, consider how historical, cultural, and social factors that shape public perceptions beliefs, goals, and expectations.
2-32. Events are routine, cyclical, planned, or spontaneous activities that significantly affect organizations, people, and military operations, such as seasons, festivals, holidays, funerals, political rallies, and agricultural crop/livestock and market cycles and paydays. Other events, such as disasters and those precipitated by military forces, stress and affect the attitudes and activities of the populace and include a moral responsibility to protect displaced civilians. Template events and analyze them for their political, economic, psychological, environmental, and legal implications.
Command and Control in a Counterinsurgency Environment
SECTION V COORDINATION
2-54. Information sharing across US government and national boundaries is important in counterinsurgency. There are likely to be several governmental agencies operating in a HN, and all are exposed daily to information valuable to counterinsurgency operations. This situation requires a strong focus on lateral coordination and the development of an effective program of interagency information exchange. In addition, the very nature of counterinsurgency denotes the sharing of information between the HN and the US joint force headquarters controlling counterinsurgency operations. This information exchange may be further complicated by a friendly third nation participating in counterinsurgency operations. The US government can complicate information exchange by restricting third nations access to information.
2-55. There are many organizations and extensive resources available to aid developing nations. Commanders should not overlook the aid these organizations may provide. All forces assigned an AO or function should determine which departments and agencies are assisting in that AO and coordinate actions so that there is no duplication of effort. Such departments, councils and agencies include–
National Security Council.
Department of Defense.
Department of State.
Department of Justice.
Department of the Treasury.
Department of Homeland Security.
Department of Agriculture.
Department of Commerce.
Central Intelligence Agency.
Department of Transportation.
2-56. Various governmental departments directly administer or support other governmental agencies. Examples of these US agencies are–
US Agency for International Development.
The US Coast Guard (under Department of Homeland Security).
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (under Department of Justice).
Immigration Customs Enforcement (under Department of Homeland Security).
Federal Communications Commission.
2-57. Nongovernmental organizations are transnational organizations of private citizens that maintain a consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the UN. Non-governmental organizations may be professional associations, foundations, multinational businesses, or simply groups with a common interest in humanitarian assistance activities (development and relief). «Nongovernmental organizations» is a term normally used by nonUnited States organizations (JP 1-02). There are several thousand NGOs. Many of these organizations focus on relief or short-term support and development, on long-term support, or a combination of the two. Some NGOs do not want to be seen as cooperating or associating with US military forces. Gaining their support and coordinating operations can be a difficult and frustrating task. Some examples of NGOs are–
Medecin Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders).
Catholic Relief Society.
CARE (Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere).
OXFAM (Oxford Committee for Famine Relief).
International Committee for the Red Cross and Red Crescent.
2-58. The most notable of international organization is the UN. Regional organizations, such as the Organization of American States, may also be involved. Depending on the level of relief or development needed in the country involved, any one of several of their organizations may be present such as–
World Food Program.
UN Refugee Agency (known by the acronym for its director, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.
UN Development Program.
Regional programs, such as Alliance for Progress (oriented on Latin America).
2-59. US and other multinational businesses–such as petroleum companies, manufacturing corporations, and import-export companies–often engage in reconstruction and development activities through community relations programs. At a minimum, commanders must know which companies are present in the AO and where those companies are conducting business. Such information can prevent fratricide or destruction of private property.
COORDINATION WITH HOST-NATION CIVIL AUTHORITIES
2-60. Sovereignty issues are among the most difficult for commanders conducting counterinsurgency operations, both in regard to forces contributed by nations and by the HN. Often, commanders are required to accomplish the mission through coordination, communication, and consensus, in addition to traditional command practices. Political sensitivities must be acknowledged, and often commanders and subordinates act as diplomats as well as warriors. Commanders address all sovereignty issues in advance through the chain of command to the US ambassador and the country team to ensure that operations are not adversely affected. Examples include the following:
Collecting and sharing information.
Aerial ports of debarkation.
Seaports of debarkation.
Location and access.
Jurisdiction over members of the US and multinational forces.
Operations in the territorial sea and internal waters.
2-61. Commanders may create structures, such as committees, to address sovereignty issues. To facilitate cooperation and build trust, military or nonmilitary representatives of the HN may co-chair these committees. These organizations facilitate operations by reducing sensitivities and misunderstandings and removing impediments. However, such issues are formally resolved with HNs through the development of appropriate technical agreements to augment existing or recently developed status of forces agreements. In many cases, security assistance organizations, NGOs, and international organizations resident in the HN, having detailed knowledge and the potential to establish good will in these areas, may be called upon to assist in the conduct of operations or the establishment of a positive and constructive relationship in the HN.
2-62. This coordination and support can exist all the way down to the community and village levels. Soldiers should be aware of both the political and societal structures in the AOs they are assigned. Political structures usually have designated leaders within the community who are responsible to the government and people. However, the societal structure may have other leaders who operate outside of the political structure. These leaders may be economic (such as businessmen), theological (such as clerics and lay leaders), informational (such as newspaper publishers or journalists), or family-based (such as elders or patriarchs). Some societal leaders may emerge due to charisma or other intangible influences. Commanders and the country team determine the key leaders, assess their level of support for US objectives, and influence and co-opt them as appropriate.
2-63. At the HN national level, the US country team is the primary coordinating structure for counterinsurgency. (See Figure 2-1.) Where multinational partners join the US, a na-
Figure 2-1. The Country Team Concept
tional-level coordinating structure is formed, where the US country team participates in or leads the multinational effort. At each subordinate political level of the HN government, a coordinating structure, the civil military coordination center, is established, including representative of the HN and HN forces, and US and multinational forces. This coordination center facilitates the integration of all military and political actions. Below the lowest political level, additional structures may be established, comparable to Neighborhood Watch, where lower-level commanders and leaders can meet directly with local populace leaders to discuss issues. Where possible, international organizations and NGOs should also take part in coordination meetings to ensure their actions are integrated and deconflicted with military and HN plans. The essential US goal is a single, controlling agency to direct all efforts with one person in charge of all military and US agency operations. The purpose of this agency is to produce a unified goal and direction.
CIVIL-MILITARY OPERATIONS CENTER
2-64. One mechanism for bringing all of the above elements together for coordination is the CMOC. CMOCs can be established at all levels of command. The CMOC coordinates the interaction of US and multinational forces with governmental organizations, international organizations, NGOs, and third-nation agencies and authorities. The CMOC is not designed as, nor should it be used as, a C2 element. It is a coordination cell between nonmilitary agencies and military forces. It is an extension of the commander’s guidance. 2-65. Overall management of a CMOC may be assigned to a multinational force commander, shared by a US and a multinational commander, or shared by a US commander and a civilian agency head. The CMOC provides both access and CMO-related data and information from and to nonmilitary agencies operating away from the military headquarters. The CMOC has no set composition. It is mission-oriented and staffed appropriately. In an Army-managed CMOC, the plans officer or civil affairs coordinator is normally responsible for management of, or participation in, the CMOC. It may be composed of, or augmented by, military and civilian representatives from many different agencies. However, it normally consists of a director, deputy director, and representatives from the operations, logistic, and medical sections of the supported headquarters. It may include other elements, the personnel of which may come from the military, NGOs, international organizations, and third nations, based on the situation. Senior CA officers normally serve as the director and deputy director of the CMOC.
SECTION VI RULES OF ENGAGEMENT
2-66. The proper application of force is a critical component to any successful counterinsurgency operation. In a counterinsurgency, the center of gravity is public support. In order to defeat an insurgent force, US forces must be able to separate insurgents from the population. At the same time, US forces must conduct themselves in a manner that enables them to maintain popular domestic support. Excessive or indiscriminant use of force is likely to alienate the local populace, thereby increasing support for insurgent forces. Insufficient use of force results in increased risks to US and multinational forces and perceived weaknesses that can jeopardize the mission by emboldening insurgents and undermining domestic popular support. Achieving the appropriate balance requires a thorough understanding of the nature and causes of the insurgency, the end state, and the military’s role in a counterinsurgency operation. Nevertheless, US forces always retain the right to use necessary and proportional force for individual and unit self-defense in response to a hostile act or demonstrated hostile intent.
2-67. In planning counterinsurgency operations, it is imperative that leaders and Soldiers understand that military force is not an end in itself, but is just one of the instruments of national power employed by the political leadership to achieve its broader objectives. A military commander is never given the absolute authority to act without ultimate accountability. Military action and the application of force are limited by a variety of political and practical considerations, some of which may not seem sensible at the tactical level. Leaders and Soldiers at all levels need to understand the nature of such limitations and the rationale behind them in order to make sound decisions regarding the application of or restraint in the use of force.
2-68. Determining the appropriate level of military force is one of the most difficult issues confronting leaders and Soldiers. Tactical decisions regarding the application of force can often have strategic implications. Typically, US forces look to the ROE as the primary method to determine the appropriate application of force. Rules of engagement are directives issued by competent military authority that delineate the circumstances and limitations under which United States forces will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other forces encountered (JP 1-02).
2-69. ROE impose political, operational, practical, and legal restrictions on the otherwise permissible use of military force. The nature and extent of restrictions contained in the ROE vary dramatically based on the justification for the initial involvement of US forces, the tactical situation, the presence of civilians, and the type of terrain in which forces are operating (urban or rural). Leaders conducting counterinsurgency operations are likely to find themselves operating with a much more constrained set of ROE. Soldiers may find it difficult and frustrating to conduct offensive operations because of the restrictive ROE. For example, defense of designated non-US Forces or designated foreign persons and their property requires approval from the President or Secretary of Defense.
2-70. Care must be taken to ensure that the mission drives the ROE and not vice-versa. The ROE may exercise a significant influence on a unit’s ability to accomplish its mission. Therefore, it is imperative for commanders and staffs to critically evaluate the ROE in light of their mission. The impact of the ROE must be fully developed and addressed in staff estimates. ROE should be used to assist in course of action development, analysis (war-gaming), and selection. (See FM 5-0.) The commander should aggressively seek modifications to the ROE if the ROE are inadequate in light of the mission and anticipated threat level. The development, modification, distribution, and training of ROE must be timely and responsive to changing threats. Changes must be distributed immediately.
2-71. Leaders remember that the ROE are applicable in all situations. While ROE govern the use of force in all situations, they do not dictate a certain amount of force to be used in all situations. ROE often identify specific circumstances where the use of force is required. However, ROE do not identify every possible situation Soldiers may encounter in a counterinsurgency environment. Instead, leaders and Soldiers rely on their knowledge and understanding of ROE, and apply sound judgment, a thorough understanding of the mission, commander’s intent, and operational environment, situational understanding, and sound procedures and practices to determine the level of appropriate force permitted by the ROE. Finally, leaders must balance the safety of their Soldiers with the safety of civilians.
2-72. Knowledge of the ROE itself is not sufficient to help Soldiers make informed decisions regarding the appropriate application of force. Consistent and effective application of the ROE requires extensive training and discipline to develop the judgment, depth of knowledge, skills, and procedures necessary to apply force in a counterinsurgency environment. Leaders stress basic troop leading procedures and situational-based training, comprehensive planning and rehearsals, effective precombat checks and mission-related patrol briefs, backbriefs, and debriefs. Effective communication is equally essential. Leaders must ensure that every Soldier completely understands the mission and commander’s intent, and has comprehensive situational understanding at all times. The appropriate level of situational understanding, realistic training, and disciplined adherence to basic troop leading procedures equips Soldiers with the tools necessary to make informed decisions regarding the decision to use or refrain from the use of force. ROE are most effective when they are simple, clear, and able to be condensed onto a small card.
SECTION VII CIVIL-MILITARY OPERATIONS MISSION PLANNING AND CRITERIA OF SUCCESS
2-73. Criteria of success help leaders plan the transfer of control of a counterinsurgency operation to a nonmilitary organization. Planning for transition is an integral part of mission planning for counterinsurgency because of the need to transfer control to the HN. Criteria of success help all concerned assess the status of the CMO portion of counterinsurgency operations.
2-74. Criteria of success are information requirements developed during the operations process that measure the degree of success in accomplishing the unit’s mission. They are normally expressed as either an explicit evaluation of the present situation or a forecast of the degree of mission accomplishment (FM 6-0). Leaders may establish observable, usually quantifiable, objective data as well as subjective indicators to assess a task’s progress compared to expectations. Leaders use criteria of success to determine how well or poorly an operation is achieving the goals of the operation per the mission statement and concept. They use criteria of success to validate effective courses of action and tactics and to determine points at which to shift resources, transition to different phases, and alter or terminate the mission.
2-75. Criteria of success are a product of planning. They differ for every mission and for different phases of a single mission. As leaders and staffs identify specified, implied, and key tasks, they define what constitutes successful completion of each task. The leader and staff decide how the criteria of success will be identified, reported, and validated. They determine what action will be taken when the criteria of success are met, as well as branch plans in case criteria of success are not achieved according to the original plan. Criteria of success are often adjusted as the situation changes and higher-level guidance develops.
2-76. Although planners begin the process of determining criteria of success when they develop the lines of operation for counterinsurgency, the commander’s objectives must be a strong, up-front consideration. CMO planners generally use logical lines of operations. (See FM 3-0.) These lines of operation normally follow the six CA activities: foreign-nation support, population resource control, humanitarian assistance, military civic action, emergency services, and support to civil administration. However, planners are not limited to these lines. Along each line of operation, planners identify objectives, desired outcomes, and decisive points. Then, they determine criteria of success to assess the effectiveness of those outcomes.
2-77. Criteria of success for assessing counterinsurgency operations should be designed with the same considerations in mind as for any other types of missions. Counterinsurgency planners should ensure that criteria of success are–
Appropriate. Criteria of success must correlate to the commander’s objectives and should relate to the audience objectives. If the objective is to present information to those outside the command, criteria should be general and few in number. If the objective is to assist on-site commanders, then criteria should be more specific and detailed.
Mission related. Criteria of success must relate to the mission. If the mission is relief, the criteria should help the commander evaluate improvements in living standards, mortality rates, and other related areas. If the mission expands, so should the criteria. Planners should tailor the criteria of success to address operational and tactical levels.
Measurable. Objective, quantitative criteria of success reflect reality more accurately than qualitative or subjective criteria and are generally the measure of choice when the situation permits their use. When using qualitative or subjective criteria, guidance for determination of those criteria and specific measurement criteria should be established and disseminated to more effectively focus judgment. Where possible, try to measure a specific aspect condition of the insurgency.
Numerically reasonable. Criteria of success should be limited to the minimum required to effectively portray the relief environment. Avoid establishing excessive criteria. Criteria of success can become unmanageable or collection efforts can outweigh the value.
Sensitive. Sensitive criteria of success force performance and accurately reflect changes related to joint force actions. Extraneous factors should not greatly affect established criteria.
Useful. Criteria of success should detect situational changes quickly enough to enable the commander to respond immediately and effectively.
2-78. In multinational or interagency operations, counterinsurgency planners coordinate US criteria of success with those of participating nations and agencies. In some cases, they may also collaborate on how the criteria will be measured and reported. For example, emergency indicators commonly used by the NGO community can be used as a baseline for developing criteria.
2-79. In addition to deciding what the criteria of success are, counterinsurgency planners decide certain aspects about each one, such as–
Who will observe the criteria? (For example, task a specific individual or team.)
When will the criteria be observed? (Are the criteria event driven or time driven? How often will the criteria be tested?)
How will the criteria of success be observed? (What method will be used to detect indicators? Is it direct observation or all-source analysis?)
PLANNING FOR PUBLIC AFFAIRS AND MEDIA TEAMS
2-80. Counterinsurgency is a war of ideas and is punctuated by moves and counters based on flexible and agile thinking and calculation. Yet, if counterinsurgency is predicated on ideas and thinking, then influence over the medium that most easily and effectively gains access to and influences ideas, thinking, and those related processes would seem to be essential. This medium is the information network, the media–print and broadcast. The media is a source of a large portion of the information a population receives and can greatly influence their collective thinking. The media have access to government leaders, decision makers, the public in most nations, and our own Soldiers to influence and shape opinions. The media is neither friend nor enemy. It is a tool to create effects and conditions in which counterinsurgency operations are successful. However, adversaries may use it directly and indirectly against those same operations. Planning for all exigencies must include the media.
2-81. The media, print and broadcast (radio, television and the Internet), play a vital role in societies involved in a counterinsurgency. Members of the media have a significant influence and shaping impact on political direction, national security objectives, and policy and national will. The media is a factor in military operations. It is their right and obligation to report to their respective audiences on the use of military force. They demand logistic support and access to military operations while refusing to be controlled. Their desire for immediate footage and on-the-spot coverage of events, and the increasing contact with units and Soldiers (for example, with embedded reporters) require commanders and public affairs officers to provide guidance to leaders and Soldiers on media relations. However, military planners must provide and enforce ground rules to the media to ensure operations security. Public affairs offices plan for daily briefings and a special briefing after each significant event because the media affect and influence each potential target audience external and internal to the AO. Speaking with the media in a forward-deployed area is an opportunity to explain what our organizations and efforts have accomplished.
USE OF INTERPRETERS
2-82. In conventional operations, Soldiers rarely have the need for interpreters. During counterinsurgency, there are occasions when Soldiers lack the linguistic ability to communicate personally and effectively with the local populace. The use of interpreters is often the best or only option. The proper use and supervision of interpreters can play a decisive role in the mission. Leaders plan for the use of interpreters and their integration into tactical units when necessary. (See Appendix B.)
SECTION I CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS
3-1. Military operations in support of counterinsurgency fall into three broad categories: CMO, combat operations, and IO. CMO are primarily oriented towards the indigenous population in villages, cities, and regions. Combat operations are oriented against insurgent leaders and cadre, smaller units, and insurgent main force organizations (battalion-, brigade-, and division-sized units) depending on the phase of the insurgency. The operations should deny the insurgents freedom of movement, access to the population, and access to safe havens. IO potentially assure a common operational picture appropriate to every level of an organization, down to the individual Soldier. Commanders also use IO to shape the information environment to reinforce CMO and combat efforts. The overall mission of all military operations in support of counterinsurgency is to provide a safe and secure environment within which governmental institutions can address the concerns of the people.
3-2. Commanders consider the following when conducting (planning, preparing, executing, and assessing) counterinsurgency operations:
Military operations for countering insurgency must all be completely integrated with the US country team or established governing authority throughout planning, preparation, execution, and assessment.
Counterinsurgency must be initiated as early as possible. An escalating insurgency becomes increasingly difficult to defeat.
Intelligence, civil affairs, and PSYOP are vital parts of all programs.
Effective local government is vital to carrying counterinsurgency programs to the local populations.
COMMAND AND CONTROL
3-3. Leaders should ascertain the level of organization for counterinsurgency within their AOs, and where none exists should influence or induce their HN counterparts to establish such an organization. At all levels, counterinsurgency planning and direction should be accomplished through area security coordination centers. These centers are composed of elements of–
HN forces and agencies.
Assigned US military and interagency representatives and multinational personnel.
3-4. The chief of a security coordination center should be a military or political leader. Each center should include a civil-military advisory committee composed of representatives from the area’s major economic and social groups and activities to facilitate communication with and participation of the local populace, and serve as a sounding board for assessing the progress of the counterinsurgency effort.
3-5. Normally, NGOs, private foreign corporations, HN private enterprises, and US governmental activities cooperate in local counterinsurgency programs. Nonmilitary personnel supervising US government efforts may be assigned at major subordinate levels of government, and often, visiting technical representatives will operate at lower levels. The administrative area advisor must coordinate military efforts and those of the US government nonmilitary representatives. In the absence of civilian advisors, the administrative area advisor may be directed to monitor the execution of programs initiated but not supervised by other US government agencies.
3-6. HN and USAID civil resources are devoted to executing economic, social, psychological, and political programs. Military resources engaged in military civic action often augment and sometimes substitute for civil resources in executing these programs.
SECTION II CIVIL-MILITARY OPERATIONS
3-7. Local political authorities bridge the gap between the remote and sometimes impersonal national government and the people. To the extent that these authorities are able to satisfy the aspirations of the people and create the image of a responsive and capable government, the openings for subversion will diminish. The military works with the local civil authorities, the populace, and NGOs through CMO. Military participation is accomplished through military civic action and populace and resource control. The leader must be ready to propose civic action projects based on the capabilities of the unit advised and must be prepared to give guidance on the techniques of applying these capabilities in accordance with an overall counterinsurgency plan. To perform these functions, the leader must be aware of the objectives and principles of CMO in paragraph 3-9. Prior to implementation of military civic action projects, military operations are coordinated with the US ambassador and country team (see Figure 2-1, page 2-12.). This coordination is essential to ensure the accomplishment of US national security interests. USAID is the US government agency responsible for nation building. USAID activities are coordinated through the US embassy. At the tactical level, direct coordination through the chain of command with USAID avoids duplication of effort and ensures adequate resources and technical assistance are made available.
3-8. Objectives of CMO in counterinsurgency operations are to–
Make substantial contributions to national development.
Gain the support, loyalty, and respect of the people for their government.
3-9. Principles of CMO include–
Conserving resources and developing an integrated economy. As such, all projects must proceed within the framework of a coordinated plan.
Conformance to guidance issued through command channels.
POPULATION AND RESOURCE CONTROL
3-10. The insurgent’s primary target is the people; therefore, counterinsurgency must separate the insurgent from the people and their resources. Population and resource control is implemented as required to support counterinsurgency operations. Leaders must be knowledgeable regarding the principles, concepts, tasks, and techniques of population and resource control in order to train and work with their counterparts on their implementation. The primary objectives of population and resource control are to separate the insurgents from the populace and to identify and eliminate the insurgents, their organization, their activities, and influence while doing so.
3-11. Civil control measures are very similar to police functions. Civil police should initiate controls because–
They are best suited by cultural background, training, and experience.
Their area orientation results in a closer relationship with the local population.
They permit military forces to concentrate on offensive counterinsurgency operations.
3-12. Where local police require reinforcement or are ineffective, local paramilitary forces– including home guards, village militia, and police auxiliaries–are mobilized or created, organized, and trained as reserves. Military forces are used only as expedients since extended assignment to this duty detracts from their main mission of offensive operations.
3-13. Continuous PSYOP are mounted to–
Counter the effects of insurgent propaganda.
Relate controls to the security and well-being of the population.
Portray a favorable governmental image.
3-14. Control measures must–
Be authorized by national laws and regulations (counterparts should be trained not to improvise unauthorized measures).
Be tailored to fit the situation (apply the minimum force required to achieve the desired result).
Be supported by effective local intelligence.
Be instituted in as wide an area as possible to prevent bypass or evasion.
Be supported by good communications.
Be lifted as the need diminishes.
Be compatible, where possible, with local customs and traditions.
Establish and maintain credibility of local government.
CONTROL PROGRAM PHASES
3-15. A control program may be developed in five phases:
Securing and defending the area internally and externally.
Organizing for law enforcement.
Executing cordon and search operations.
Screening and documenting the population (performing a detailed census).
Performing public administration, to include resource control.
SECURING AND DEFENDING THE AREA OF OPERATIONS
3-16. Security and defense begin concurrently with, or immediately subsequent to, offensive operations. Security of urban centers and defense of key infrastructure are pre-requisites to beginning offensive operations. The entire political administrative unit (region, province, district, village), as well as each individual community, must be secured all the time. In areas under insurgent influence, it will be necessary to construct defenses around existing villages and concentrate rural populations into defendable population units. Normally, this will be accomplished concurrently with counterinsurgency operations, environmental improvement, and population and resource control programs. Techniques for securing and defending the AO include establishing defended urban areas and relocating populations.
Defended Urban Area
3-17. Defended urban areas may be established if–
Less restrictive measures have failed to eliminate population support of the insurgent.
Government forces have been unable to provide defense or internal security.
The population must provide their own defense to release military forces to conduct counterinsurgent warfare. However, the populace must be armed and trained to be effective.
They are required as bases from which to mount operations.
3-18. Leaders can assist in the development of the defended community by–
Coordinating requests for USAID support with appropriate USAID area representatives.
Planning urban defenses, to include provisions for support.
Organizing, equipping, and training, urban defense forces.
Ensuring military defense forces are provided until local defense forces are adequate and supported by regional paramilitary and military forces.
Implementing control techniques (curfews, alert and warning systems, systems of identifying both friendly and insurgent forces).
Military civic action projects based on self-help.
Establishing local government by organizing urban civil-military leader committees, electing community officials (where possible), and creating governmental institutions.
3-19. The most severe of the restrictive measures, is accomplished when–
Wide dispersion of the population prevents effective defense, internal security, and control.
Requirements exist to evacuate or populate selected areas.
3-20. Leaders can contribute to the implementation of this technique by providing assistance in the following areas:
PSYOP to prepare the population for relocation.
Defense during relocation. If relocation is combined with the defended urban area technique, the leader can further assist, once relocation is completed.
Logistic requirements–such as subsistence, transportation, and medical assistance –to facilitate movement and relocation of the population and their possessions.
ORGANIZING FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT
3-21. A successful counterinsurgency depends ultimately and initially on a legitimate and effective HN justice program integrating law enforcement, the judiciary, and a penal system. The existing justice program may be limited by capability (leadership and training), resources, or corruption, and require direct or indirect efforts to support or even reestablish police services, courts, and prisons. Such efforts must be coordinated with the country team and closely synchronized with other civil-military actions. The responsibility for these efforts may fall initially on US military assets during the initial stages of an operation or when the security situation is untenable for civilian agencies and contract advisors. The division staff judge advocate and provost marshal may require additional technical support from judge advocate and military police assets (for example, administrative and criminal law experts, criminal investigators, and corrections specialists) to support local-, regional-, or nationallevel justice programs, while setting the conditions for transfer of support to other US governmental or international agencies.
3-22. Support to law enforcement may be limited to coordinated actions at local levels between US military police and the HN police (for example, joint patrols, co-location of military and HN police at police stations) or require more comprehensive support to national and regional police headquarters and technical departments. Other support may include support of– Administrative divisions, which may include the headquarters, personnel, and finance departments. Police (training) academy. Investigative division, to include a criminal laboratory facility. Traffic division, to include highway patrol and traffic accident investigations. Specialized police that may include special reaction teams, personnel security, and customs and immigration police.
3-23. Support to the judiciary may be limited to providing security to the existing courts or may lead to more comprehensive actions to build local, regional, and national courts and the required support apparatus. To avoid overcrowding in police jails, the courts must have an efficient and timely magistrate capability, ideally co-located with police stations and police jails, to review cases for trial.
3-24. Support to the penal system may be limited to monitoring conditions and adherence to basic humanitarian standards or require more comprehensive support to reestablish all levels of incarceration and a rehabilitative programs. Points to remember: Local jails are typically co-located with police stations and administered by the local police to hold suspected criminals until a magistrate determines whether there is sufficient evidence for trial. Regional jails are typically run by prison officials to hold detainees referred to trial, but not convicted. Pretrial detainees should not be incarcerated with convicted criminals. Prisons hold convicted criminals and are typically designed and divided to address level of inmate risk (high, medium, and low), rehabilitative programs (e.g., violence, drug addiction, sex crimes), and the separation of genders and juvenile offenders.
CORDON AND SEARCH
3-25. Cordon and search is a technique used by military and police forces in both urban and rural environments. It is frequently used by counterinsurgency forces conducting a population and resource control mission against small centers of population or subdivisions of a larger community. To be effective, cordon and search operations must have sufficient forces to effectively cordon off and thoroughly search target areas, to include subsurface areas. PSYOP, civil affairs, and specialist interrogation teams should augment cordon and search forces to increase the effectiveness of operations. Consider the following when conducting cordon and search operations: Allocate ample time to conduct thorough search and interrogation of residents of affected areas. Operations should be rehearsed thoroughly, whenever possible. Firm but fair treatment must be the rule. Every effort must be made to avoid any incident that results in unnecessarily alienating the people.
3-26. Cordon and search operations may be conducted as follows: Disposition of troops should– Facilitate visual contact between posts within the cordon. Provide for adequate patrolling and immediate deployment of an effective reserve force. Priority should be given to– Sealing the administrative center of the community. Occupying all critical facilities. Detaining personnel in place. Preserving and securing all records, files, and other archives. Key facilities include– Administrative buildings. Police stations. News media facilities. Post offices. Communications centers. Transportation offices and motor pools. Prisons and other places of detention. Schools. Medical facilities. Search Techniques include– Search teams of squad size organized in assault, support, and security elements. One target is assigned per team. Room searches are conducted by two-person teams. Room search teams are armed with pistols, assault weapons, and automatic weapons. Providing security for search teams screening operations and facilities. Pre-search coordination includes– Between control personnel and screening team leaders. Study of layout plans. Communications, that is, radio, whistle, and hand signals. Disposition of suspects. On-site security. Guard entrances, exits (to include the roof), halls, corridors, and tunnels. Assign contingency tasks for reserve. Room searches conducted by two- or three-person teams. Immobilize occupants with one team member. Search room with other team member. Search all occupants. When available, a third team member should be the recorder. Place documents in a numbered envelope and tag the associated individual with a corresponding number.
SCREENING AND DOCUMENTING THE POPULATION
3-27. Screening and documentation include following: Systematic identification and registration. Issuance of individual identification cards containing– A unique number. Picture of individual. Personal identification data. Fingerprints. An official stamp (use different colors for each administration region). Family group census cards, an official copy of which is retained at the local police agency. These must include a picture and appropriate personal data. Frequent use of mobile and fixed checkpoints for inspection, identification, and registration of documents. Preventing counterfeiting of identification and registration documents by laminating and embossing. Programs to inform the population of the need for identification and registration.
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION INCLUDING RESOURCE CONTROL
3-28. Public administration at local levels is normally performed by the mayor and police. It is at this level that resources are managed and controlled. After screening has been completed, action must be taken for continuation of governmental functions, and the following factors should be considered: Combining internal security and defense activities under a public safety office. Employing population surveillance (overt and covert) based on area coverage.
3-29. Overt surveillance is the responsibility of the police patrol division. It is conducted with conventional police procedures, using the officer on the beat as the lowest official of government in contact with the public.
3-30. Police patrols– Vary routes and movement frequently to avoid establishing a predictable pattern. Should not be limited to the confines of the community but should include adjacent areas. Must be coordinated with the activities of military and paramilitary forces to avoid duplication of effort and confusion. Use military dogs to contribute to overall effectiveness.
3-31. Covert surveillance is a collection effort with the responsibility fixed at the intelligence/security division or detective division of the police department. Covert techniques, ranging from application of sophisticated electronics systems to informants, should include– Informant nets. Reliability of informants should be verified. Protection of identity is a must. Block control. Dividing a community or populated area into zones where a trusted resident reports on the activities of the population. If the loyalty of block leaders is questionable, an informant net can be established to verify questionable areas. 3-32. For a detailed discussion and checklists, see Appendix C.
SECTION III COUNTERINSURGENCY COMBAT OPERATIONS
3-33. The primary objective of counterinsurgency operations is to neutralize the insurgents and, together with population and resource control measures, establish a secure environment within which political, social, and economic progress is possible. Counterinsurgency operations include US, HN, and multinational forces. Planning includes all three, and the conduct of operations must include close coordination among the forces of the various nations involved.
3-34. The key to success is effective and actionable intelligence at the local level. Many insurgents are «local boys» swept up in the excitement of the moment. Others are outsiders, easily identified by the locals. In either case, when insurgents overplay their hand and place the community at risk, it is likely local personnel will identify these insurgents to the authorities. This information may lead to the development of sound intelligence, enabling commanders to focus operations toward specific objectives.
3-35. Planning, preparing, executing, and assessing counterinsurgency operations adhere to several fundamentals. While many apply to conventional operations, others are counterinsurgency-specific. Figure 3-1 (page 3-9) is a leader’s guide to support both offensive and defensive operations and reflects the fundamentals of counterinsurgency.
HOST-NATION SECURITY FORCE OPERATIONS
3-36. The use of HN forces is essential to developing a stable society, one that looks to the HN government for long-term security. Whenever practicable, HN security forces operate in conjunction with US and multinational forces, and assume the major burden in operations when capable of so doing. The security forces in counterinsurgency consist of the civil police, paramilitary (also called the militia), and military. The elements of the security force work in concert to–
Secure, protect, and separate the population from the insurgents.
Neutralize and defeat the insurgent forces.
3-37. The first line of defense for the government is its police forces, which may be organized either locally or nationally. In either case, their action must be well coordinated with the overall counterinsurgency operations. The first objective of the police is to identify and destroy the illegal infrastructure of the insurgent organization. Police intelligence identifies and locates leaders, penetration agents, intelligence and propaganda agents, terrorists, and recruiters. The police arrest them using the minimum force necessary.
3-38. There are two types of offensive operations employed against insurgent forces. The first is at the local level where US forces (SOF or trainers) work with local authorities to find, fix, and destroy local insurgents who seek to exert control in the communities, cities, and regions. These forces are normally small but well armed. Examples of this type insurgent force include the Viet Cong in South Vietnam, the FMLN in El Salvador, and al Qaeda in Afghanistan and Chechnya. They move freely within the population and use raids, ambushes, and small hit-and-run attacks intended to drive out occupation forces or destabilize established authorities. The second type of offensive operation is conducted by regular army formations of the HN or multinational forces against main force insurgent units. An example of this type of insurgent force is the NVA that infiltrated into South Vietnam.
Concentrate on elimination of the insurgents, not on terrain objectives.
Maintain the offensive in all kinds of weather (for example, do not bog down during the rainy season–limited offensive operations are preferable to passive measures).
Provide guidelines for allocation of counterinsurgency forces.
Get counterinsurgency forces out of garrisons, cities, and towns; off the roads and trails into the environment of the insurgents.
Plan for and use all resources (both regular and special units).
Avoid establishment of semipermanent patrol bases laden with artillery and supplies that tend to tie down the force. (Pay special attention to prevent mobile units from becoming fixed.)
Emphasize secrecy and surprise.
Plans should provide for–
Effective and secure communications.
Constant indoctrination of the individual Soldier.
Variation of methods and the use of unorthodox tactics and techniques to avoid establishing patterns.
Emphasize that command and staff action should include–
Centralized planning of small-scale decentralized tactical operations.
Emphasis on unity of command.
Training programs that stress developing the offensive spirit, physical stamina, and a desire to seek out the insurgents and destroy them.
Extensive contingency planning for employment of reserve forces.
Detailed coordination of the intelligence collection effort accomplished by–
Coordination with civil and paramilitary intelligence nets.
Creating informer nets with the local population.
Interrogation of prisoners and suspects.
Detailed planning and coordination of activities with civilian officials in any AO where the civilian population is concerned.
Incorporation and monitoring of military civic action into the operational plan by–
Planning for and augmenting a plan of military civic action, propaganda, and population control to recover population under insurgent influence.
Requesting and distributing supplies for resettlement of population.
Training paramilitary forces for security operations and ensuring continuous support for these forces.
Detailed integration of combat support and combat service support functions (especially aerial supply) into all tactical planning.
Judicious application of the minimum destruction concept in view of the overriding requirements to minimize alienating the population. (For example, bringing artillery or air power to bear on a village from which sniper fire was received may neutralize insurgent action but will alienate the civilian population as a result of casualties among noncombatants.)
Consideration of the use of all means of mobility, to include aircraft, tracked and wheeled vehicles, boats, animals, and porters.
Providing for the rapid collection and dissemination of all available information and intelligence so that counterinsurgency forces can take immediate action to destroy fast moving insurgents.
Figure 3-1. Leader’s Checklist for Counterinsurgency Operations
Platoons are assigned AOs, with one platoon
in reserve. Platoons teach locals how to protect
their communities. Squads run training
Figure 3-2. Company AO
3-39. Small units handle local counterinsurgency operations most effectively. These small units are usually company sized, operating within a community or group of communities to find, fix, and destroy the insurgents. When these companies are habitually associated with a particular community, they can develop the intelligence necessary to identify and destroy the insurgents. Harassment operations may assist in locating and fixing insurgents. Operations of this type will prevent insurgents from resting and reorganizing, will inflict casualties, aid in gaining detailed knowledge of the AO, and cause insurgents to expend their limited resources. When an insurgent force has been located, every attempt to encircle the force should be made, even if piecemeal deployment is required. Normally, such operations require that the counterinsurgency force be much larger than the insurgent force (see FM 90-8). Company commanders can call on support from their next higher headquarters that also maintains a company reserve element. (See Figure 3-2.)
3-40. The American way of war has been to substitute firepower for manpower. As a result, US forces have frequently resorted to firepower in the form of artillery or air any time they make contact. This creates two negatives in a counterinsurgency. First, massive firepower causes collateral damage, thereby frequently driving the locals into the arms of the insurgents. Second, it allows insurgents to break contact after having inflicted casualties on friendly forces. A more effective method is to attack with ground forces to gain and maintain contact, with the goal of completely destroying the insurgent force. This tactic dictates that military forces become skilled in pursuits. The unit that makes the initial contact with the insurgent force requires rapid augmentation to maintain pressure against the fleeing force, envelop it, and destroy it. These augmentation (reaction) forces should be given the highest priority for use of available transport.
3-41. The pursuit force is organized into two elements, the direct pressure force and the encircling forces (includes blocking forces). The direct pressure force pursues and maintains constant offensive pressure on the enemy force as it withdraws. The encircling forces, employing superior mobility (preferably by using airmobile or airborne forces), conduct local envelopments (single or double) to cut off insurgent forces and destroy them (see FM 3-90).
3-42. Area ambush is an effective offensive counterinsurgency technique. The area ambush consists of a primary ambush element that triggers the ambush and smaller supporting ambush groups that cover all likely routes of withdrawal. Once the ambush is triggered, the smaller ambush groups open fire as the insurgent force attempts to withdraw (see FM 3-90).
3-43. Defense is oriented on the location of the community or installation rather than upon the most favorable terrain. Since defense of the specific community or installation is paramount, plans for withdrawal to rearward positions are focused on retaining control of the community or installation.
3-44. Security and surveillance measures are coordinated for 24-hour operations. The provisions for perimeter defense are particularly applicable in defense of communities or installations against insurgent attack when regular counterinsurgency forces are conducting the defense. When using local paramilitary forces, training must instill the necessary confidence and ability to provide an effective defense for a community under attack until supporting forces are delivered or until reinforcements arrive.
3-45. By prearranged SOPs–to include communications, forces, and fire support–larger communities and the surrounding smaller ones mutually assist in the defense of one another until other support or reinforcements arrive. In areas where offensive operations have been conducted to eliminate insurgent control of the population, regular military forces are required to temporarily assume responsibility for security/defense of a liberated community until adequate local defenders can be trained and equipped.
3-46. For planning for security of column movement, see Chapter 6.
3-47. All air and ground fire support elements within range of the route of the mounted column take measures to ensure close and continuous fire support. Fire planning, to include registration, must be as complete as time allows. Continuous communications are essential to establish positive control in order to clear airspace and apply effects.
3-48. Individual and unit SOPs for maneuver as responsive action and counterambush reaction include the following:
Pre-positioning of security elements along the route.
Possible use of airmobile hunter-killer teams.
Assistance available from friendly units occupying positions along or adjacent to the route.
3-49. Security for movement when dismounted presents several considerations that are different from security for mounted columns. These include the following:
Secrecy that may preclude air cover.
Restrictions on registration of artillery and the inability to plan targets when the route cannot be determined in advance.
Flank security is easier for dismounted movement, particularly if ground or air transportation can be used to position security elements.
Silent movement of dismounted columns, particularly at night, can allow security elements to locate ambush forces.
Extended formations that allow part of the column to be in position to maneuver against an ambush force that strikes a different part of the column.
CLEAR AND HOLD
3-50. The clear and hold operation focuses the three primary counterinsurgency programs (CMO, combat operations, and IO), supported by intelligence and psychological operations on a specific geographical or administrative area or portions thereof. The tactics and techniques used to conduct clear and hold operations are discussed throughout this manual. The clear and hold operation is executed in a specific high priority area experiencing overt insurgency and has the following objectives:
Creation of a secure physical and psychological environment.
Establishing firm government control of the population and the area.
Gaining willing support of the population and their participation in the governmental programs for countering insurgency.
3-51. Clear and hold operations should expand outward from a secure base, such as an urban industrial complex whose population supports the government effort and where military forces are in firm control. No area or its population that has been subjected to the intensive organizational efforts of a subversive insurgent organization can be won back until– A commander responsible for the clear and hold operation is allocated military forces clearly superior to the insurgent force known and suspected to be in the area or immediately available in an adjacent area. Sufficient nonmilitary resources are allocated to effectively carry out all necessary environmental improvement and population and resources control operations within the area. The insurgent has been cleared from the area. The insurgent hard-core organization and its support structure has been neutralized or eliminated. A governmental organization, to which the local population gives willing support, has been established to replace that of the insurgents.
3-52. The clear and hold operation is characterized by execution of four generally overlapping stages: preparation, clearing, holding, and consolidation.
3-53. Inventory, assessment, and planning are conducted during this stage, and are characterized by the following major actions:
Selection and delineation of a specific area to undergo clear and hold operations
Designation of chain of command and formulation of a concept of operations.
Collection of data and information on the AO (area assessment).
Estimate of resource requirements, both military and nonmilitary.
Preparation of a clear and hold operation plan. During preparation of the plan, consideration to many factors will be given, including the following:
Emergency legislation to provide a legal basis for population and resource control measures and the legal use of armed forces.
Key points that may require establishing static defense posts.
Police and paramilitary force requirements and organization.
Coordination, to include provisions for joint training and operations involving military, police, paramilitary, intelligence, psychological, and civilian administrative agencies and forces.
Psychological preparation of the population of adjacent areas to explain the necessity for these operations.
Deny the insurgent organization the capability to function in the area.
Establish the physical presence of government military and population and resources control forces throughout the area.
Establish firm security in the area under the protective shield of government forces.
3-54. The clearing stage can be initiated by a clear in zone or cordon and search operation to either disperse or force reaction by major insurgent elements within the AO. Once this has been accomplished, units employ a combination of offensive small unit operations, such as area saturation patrolling, area ambushes, and other techniques.
3-55. Repressive actions and retribution against the general population in the area must not be condoned. A characteristic of all counterinsurgency operations is firm and impartial treatment whenever and wherever possible, since often it will be impossible to identify the insurgent at the onset of operations.
3-56. Population and resource control forces introduce surveillance and restrictive control measures as necessary.
3-57. Operations during this phase are designed to–
Establish firm government control over the area and the population.
Develop a local capability for area security.
Establish a government political apparatus to replace the insurgent apparatus.
Develop a dependable network of informants.
3-58. Major actions occurring during this phase include–
Designating and allocating area-oriented, regular military forces to continue offensive military operations in the area. Other regular military forces that participated in clearing stage actions are now released or are assigned to carrying out other parts of the counterinsurgency effort in the area.
Introduction of elements of other agencies of the government, as the area achieves a more secure status, to begin carrying out environmental improvement programs. Resources to support these agencies and their operations should be introduced, as needed, at this time.
Thorough population screening to determine insurgent elements and to uncover local leadership.
Area surveys, assisted by local leadership, to determine resources and precise and current needs of the area and its people.
Motivation of population, by such actions as environmental improvements, designed to psychologically condition the population and induce them to participate in the reconstruction of the area and in the defense of their area.
Government support to those willing to participate in reconstruction, based upon their needs and upon the principle of self-help, wherever possible, and willingness to defend what they accomplish.
Training of local paramilitary forces, including arming and involving them in one or more successful operations against insurgents.
Establishing a communications system tying the area into a larger secure communications system.
Progressive efforts–such as formation of youth clubs, participation of the population in electing local leadership, participation in community-sponsored environmental improvement and other projects–to develop national consciousness and rapport between the population and its government.
3-59. During this stage all activities of the clear and hold operation are expanded and accelerated with the objectives of–
Turning primary responsibility for local security and government over to the local population as soon as they are capable of accepting such responsibility.
Maintaining complete security. Continuing the reconstruction effort with support being provided, as necessary, from local or government resources, or a combination thereof.
Continuing development of national consciousness and the local political base willingly supported by and participated in by the local population.
The redeployment of the bulk of the area-oriented counterinsurgent force to carry out operations in adjacent or other high priority areas occurs during this phase. However, redeployment must not take place until local paramilitary forces are capable of providing local security. Further, a general reserve force is constituted to respond swiftly to insurgent attacks that are beyond the capability of local or regional forces. A national-level reserve force–such as airmobile, airborne, or marine units–may be made available to provide assistance.
3-60. The attainment of clear and hold operations objectives requires a considerable expenditure of resources and time. Leader and their HN counterparts must be prepared for a longterm effort. Based upon experiences in insurgency-stricken areas in which clear and hold or similar type operations have been conducted, several years may be required to achieve complete and enduring success.
SECTION IV INFORMATION OPERATIONS
3-61. Commanders conduct information operations (IO) to mass the effects of the information element of combat power. The Army defines information operations as the employment of the core capabilities of electronic warfare, computer network operations, psychological operations, military deception, and operations security, in concert with specified supporting and related capabilities, to affect or defend information and information systems, and to influence decision making (FM 3-13). The goal of IO is to gain and maintain information superiority at decisive points. Information superiority is the operational advantage derived from the ability to collect, process, and disseminate an uninterrupted flow of information while exploiting or denying an adversary’s ability to do the same (FM 3-0). It is a condition that allows leaders to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative. (See JP 3-13; FM 3-13. See FM 6-0 for a discussion of the commander’s C2 system.)
3-62. Insurgents target commanders, leaders and other important decision makers, the commander’s C2 system, and information systems (INFOSYS). Information-environment-based threats vary in counterinsurgency operations, based on insurgents’ motivation and technical capabilities. Commanders conduct defensive IO to counter insurgent IO. Defensive IO includes OPSEC measures.
3-63. Information fratricide is the result of employing information operations elements in a way that causes effects in the information environment that impede the conduct of friendly operations or adversely affect friendly forces (FM 3-13). A familiar example is friendly force jamming degrading friendly radio communications. However, information fratricide covers other IO aspects as well. Actions, perceptions, and information from friendly forces that create improper impressions can adversely affect IO in sensitive situations.
INSURGENT IO-RELATED CAPABILITIES
3-64. Most threats to units engaged in offensive, defensive, and stability operations are straightforward and familiar. During these types of operations, commanders expect an enemy to conduct some form of IO against them and their C2 system. They assume enemies will use multiple means to disrupt their decision making process by denying them information and casting doubts on information they have. During counterinsurgency operations there are other multifaceted threats. These threats come from individuals, organizations, and nation-states with varying capabilities. Commanders anticipate these threats, prepare defenses, and–when appropriate–conduct IO against them.
3-65. Enemy sources at all capability levels are present during counterinsurgency. Insurgents use offensive IO as a weapon, using symbols and unconventional attacks against IOrelated targets. Expect insurgents to analyze friendly vulnerabilities and focus their IO against them.
3-66. Some attacks may have immediate results while others may be designed with delayed effects. Insurgents’ operating capabilities include–
Hacking to gain unauthorized access to INFOSYS.
Attempting to infiltrate organizations associated with counterinsurgency efforts.
They will attempt to recruit and develop individuals with legitimate access to C2 system elements. These personnel may also be self-motivated with no direct insurgent links.
Transnational insurgents and nonstate criminals using computer Internet message and bulletin boards to pass intelligence and technical data.
Terrorist attacks to destroy INFOSYS.
FOREIGN INFORMATION OPERATIONS ACTIVITIES
3-67. Threats from adversaries other than insurgents include the following:
Espionage, data collection, network mapping or reconnaissance, and data theft. These sophisticated capabilities may be provided by transnational or criminal groups, drug cartels, or insurgents sponsored by another state.
State-sponsored offensive IO, especially computer network attacks, using state-ofthe-art tools and covert techniques conducted in coordination with military operations.
Attacking systems and satellites by jamming, broadcasting false signals, deceptive transmissions, lasers, or electromagnetic pulses.
3-68. Commanders evaluate insurgents from several perspectives, using the following factors:
Insurgent C2 system. Does the enemy C2 system include computers, digital devices, and networks? Or, do the insurgents use less technical means to exercise C2, and what are they?
Sources of information. The sophistication and technical complexity of the insurgents’ C2 system determine the means required to exploit it. What is the most effective way to collect information on the insurgents’ C2 system? Insurgent goals and interests. What are the insurgents’ short- and long-range goals? How can friendly forces affect both?
Decision makers, influential groups, and individuals. These people may be leaders within the insurgents’ political movement, counterstate, or armed forces. They may be outside interest groups not officially associated with the insurgency. They may be located within or outside the AO. Decision makers may be political leaders, commanders or trusted subordinates. Determine what individuals or groups decide or influence insurgents or other group actions.
Insurgent IO resources and capabilities. An accurate understanding of current insurgent capabilities is essential to success in a dynamic operational environment. Determine what resources insurgents can use to protect their C2 system or inhibit friendly mission success. Expect these to be dynamic rather than static over time. Insurgents may gain, lose, or reconstitute IO resources and capabilities, based on combat actions or outside support.
Insurgent information-based vulnerabilities. How and where are insurgents vulnerable to friendly IO? How can we exploit those vulnerabilities? What countermeasures are insurgents using to prevent exploitation?
Friendly vulnerabilities to insurgent IO efforts. How and where are we vulnerable? What can we do to prevent insurgents from exploiting those vulnerabilities?
INFORMATION OPERATIONS IN SUPPORT OF COUNTERINSURGENCY
3-69. Information operations consist of core and supporting elements as well as related activities. (See Figure 3-3.)
3-70. Consider how in a counterinsurgency environment the application of these elements and activities most effectively supports the counterinsurgency effort. IO are enabling operations that create opportunities for decisive operations. Commanders use offensive and defensive IO simultaneously to counter insurgent actions and seize and maintain the initiative.
Core Elements Supporting Elements Related Activities
Computer network operations
Figure 3-3. Information Operations Core and Supporting Elements and Related Activities
3-71. The elements of IO are independent activities, not organizations. These activities are most effective when employed together and synchronized. All elements may not be required for each operation. Commanders decide which IO elements are appropriate to accomplish specific counterinsurgency objectives. For example, computer network operations may be used against a transnational and sophisticated, networked insurgency, such as al Qaeda. These computer network operations may be synchronized with military deception to influence franchise organization decision makers to act or not act. Electronic warfare may target cell phone chips and associated frequencies, disrupt electronic monetary transfers, and jam frequencies. Create an information advantage by using the following effects to attack insurgents:
Destroy. Destroy is to damage a combat system so badly that it cannot perform any function or be restored to a usable condition without being entirely rebuilt (FM 390). In IO, it is most effective when timed to occur just before insurgents need to execute a C2. Physical attack is the joint term.
Disrupt. Disrupt, in information operations, means breaking or interrupting the flow of information between selected C2 nodes (FM 3-13).
Degrade. Degrade, in information operations, means using nonlethal or temporary means to reduce the effectiveness or efficiency of adversary command and control systems, and information collection efforts or means (FM 3-13).
Deny. Deny, in information operations, entails withholding information about Army force capabilities and intentions that insurgents need for effective and timely decision making (FM 3-13). Effective denial leaves opponents vulnerable to offensive capabilities. OPSEC is the primary nonlethal means of denial.
Deceive. Deceive is to cause a person to believe what is not true (FM 3-13). Military deception seeks to mislead insurgent decision makers by manipulating their understanding of reality. Successful deception causes them to believe what is not true.
Exploit. Exploit, in information operations, is to gain access to adversary command and control systems to collect information or to plant false or misleading information (FM 3-13).
Influence. Influence is to cause adversaries or others to behave in a manner favorable to Army forces (FM 3-13). It results from applying perception management to affect the target’s emotions, motives, and reasoning. Perception management also seeks to influence the target’s perceptions, plans, actions, and will to oppose friendly forces.
Protection. Protection is all actions taken to guard against espionage or capture of sensitive equipment and information (FM 3-13). It denies the insurgents information about friendly capabilities and intentions by controlling indicators.
Detection. Detection is to discover or discern the existence, presence, or fact of an intrusion into information systems (FM 3-13). Detection is the identification of insurgent’s attempts to gain access to friendly information and INFOSYS.
Restoration. Restoration is to bring information systems back to their original state (FM 3-13).
Response. Response, in information operations, is to react quickly to an adversary’s information operations attack or intrusion (FM 3-13). Timely identification of insurgents and their intent and capabilities is the cornerstone of effective response to insurgent offensive IO.
3-72. Commanders use IO to shape the environment during counterinsurgency operations. Commanders prepare databases for each IO element using contingency plans to focus their efforts. These databases contain information on possible insurgents and other significant participants. At the strategic, operational, and tactical levels, databases focus on one or more of the following target sets:
Information capabilities and vulnerabilities, including military and civilian communication networks, and domestic and foreign media.
Military leadership, operations, and infrastructure, and their vulnerabilities at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels.
Economic factors that affect an insurgent’s ability to mount and sustain military operations, and those that affect the morale of the population and its leadership. This set includes the infrastructure that supports economic activity.
Social effects of ethnic (clan and tribal), racial, and historical animosities/alliances.
APPLICATION OF IO ELEMENTS IN COUNTERINSURGENCY SUPPORT
3-73. The overall objective during a counterinsurgency is to win the battle of ideas and the politico-military struggle for power. IO can help the HN explain how the HN is addressing the concerns of the people. Well-synchronized offensive IO can cripple not only insurgent armed forces but also insurgent political decision making capabilities. IO is most effective when coordinated with conventional and special operations, and fully integrated into planning and targeting.
3-74. Counterpropaganda reduces the ability of insurgent propaganda to influence the HN populace. Counterpropaganda includes preventive actions, counteractions, and rumor control. It attacks insurgent propaganda. Propaganda awareness programs inform friendly populations about the nature of hostile propaganda.
3-75. Counteractions are measures that PSYOP units take to reduce or neutralize the effects of hostile propaganda. Sometimes the most effective countermeasure is not to respond or attempt to counter the propaganda. Direct response to propaganda can lend credibility to it and may be counterproductive. Rumors are a means of propaganda based on widely disseminated talk or opinion. They have no discernable source and no known authority. Rumor control seeks to counter rumors that are unfavorable to HN interests.
3-76. Failure to counter insurgent propaganda can produce significant negative effects. These range from simple confusion to disrupting ongoing operations. Common effects of hostile propaganda, misinformation, and disinformation, include–
Prompting neutral parties to resist or not support HN military operations.
Increasing insurgent will to resist by fanning hatreds, biases, and predispositions.
Inciting riots. Leading multinational partners to question their roles.
Causing refugees to block lines of communication.
Fostering distrust for the police and HN forces. Are the police and HN forces corrupt or puppets? Do they represent the HN society or some other nation?
Causing the HN populace not to cooperate with friendly forces.
Causing essential communicators to deny cooperation or resist.
Causing diversion of military assets to address problems that, while seemingly insignificant, require significant resources.
Leading friendly governments to questions their own policies and support for counterinsurgency operations.
SECTION V THE MEDIA
3-77. The media–the printed medium, radio, television, and the Internet–have a vital role in societies directly and indirectly involved in counterinsurgency. The news media and other information networks’ increasing availability to societies’ leadership, bureaucracies, and populace means members of this news and communication medium have a significant impact on political direction, achieving national security objectives, policy formation, and national will. Media scrutiny of military operations, journalists’ desire for immediate footage and onthe-spot coverage of confrontational events, and the increasing contact with units and Soldiers (including embedded reporters) require that commanders and public affairs officers provide guidance to leaders and Soldiers on media relations. The media affect and influence each potential target audience and personnel external and internal to the AO. Speaking with the media in a forward-deployed area is an opportunity to explain what our organizations and efforts have accomplished, but be prepared to field questions regarding perceived negative impacts also. Figure 3-4 contains general public affairs guidelines.
3-78. In addition to these general guidelines, leaders should always consult the public affairs office guidance related to the current operation. (See Appendix C.)
Points to Remember When Doing Media Interviews What to Do When the Media Visits Your AO:
Be relaxed, confident, and professional.
Be concise: think about what you will say before you speak
Avoid using colorful or profane language.
Stay in your lane. Confine your discussions to areas in which you have firsthand knowledge or where you have personal experience
Deal in facts–avoid speculation and hypothetical questions
Label your opinions as opinions. Don’t get into political discussions.
Stay on the record. If you say it, they’ll print it.
Don’t discuss classified information.
Don’t argue with the reporter. Be firm, and be polite.
Speak plainly. Don’t use military slang or jargon.
Protect the record. Correct the «facts» if they are wrong. ·
Do not threaten the media representative.
Politely move the media to an area out of harm’s way where they do not interfere with the performance of the mission.
Notify the senior person present so he/she can determine what the media wants.
Cooperate with the reporter within the limits of OPSEC and safety.
If there are OPSEC or safety concerns that make the interviewing or filming impossible at this time, let the reporter know up front.
At no time should a media representative’s equipment be confiscated. If you feel a security violation has occurred, notify your chain of command.
If you have problems with the media, don’t get emotional. Report the incident through the chain of command to the area public affairs officer.
Figure 3-4. Example of PAO Guidance Card
4-1. The successful conduct of counterinsurgency operations relies on the willing support and cooperation of the populations directly involved. Greater priority and awareness is needed to understand the motivations of the parties involved in the conflict and the population as a whole. The understanding of the background and development of the conflict into which US forces are intervening is of particular significance. This requires a detailed understanding of the cultural environment and the human terrain in which the US forces will be operating and thereby places a heavy reliance on the use of HUMINT.
4-2. The commander requires intelligence about the enemy and the AO prior to engaging in operations. Intelligence assists commanders in visualizing their battlespace, knowing the enemy, organizing their forces, and controlling operations to achieve the desired tactical objectives or end state. Intelligence supports force protection by alerting the commander to emerging threats and assisting in security operations. Intelligence to support counterinsurgency operations focuses on three areas:
Factors motivating the insurgency.
Appeal the insurgency holds for insurgents.
Organization, leadership, and key functionaries of the insurgency.
4-3. «Open-source intelligence» refers to the practice of drawing information from the news media and processing it into intelligence. It is an increasingly common practice among world intelligence organizations. The six categories of media and news sources providing opensource intelligence are–
Military and other professional journals.
Internet web logs (commonly called «blogs.»
Visual media (primarily television).
4-4. Units engaged in counterinsurgency operations may face multiple threats. The commander must understand how enemies organize, equip, train, employ, and control their forces. Intelligence provides an understanding of the enemy, which assists in planning, preparing, and executing operations. Commanders must also understand their operational environment and its effects on both their own and enemy operations. The commander receives mission-oriented intelligence on enemy forces and the AO from the G-2/S-2. The G-2/S-2 depends upon the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) effort to collect and provide information on the enemy and AO.
4-5. One of the most significant contributions that intelligence can accomplish is to accurately predict future enemy events. Although a difficult task, predictive intelligence enables the commander and staff to anticipate key enemy events or actions and develop corresponding plans or counteractions. The most important purpose of intelligence is to enable decision making. Commanders receive the intelligence, understand it (because it is tailored to the commander’s requirements), and act on it. Through this doctrinal concept, intelligence drives operations. 4-6. The AO during counterinsurgency operations includes three primary components: physical terrain and weather, society (socio-cultural, often referred to as the human terrain), and infrastructure. These components provide a structure for intelligence personnel to focus and organize to provide support to counterinsurgency operations. These entities are interdependent, not separate. These components enable the commanders to gain an in-depth understanding of their AO during counterinsurgency operations and provide a focus for the intelligence analyst.
INTELLIGENCE PREPARATION OF THE BATTLEFIELD PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS
4-7. IPB includes information about terrain and weather and civil considerations as well as the enemy. (The six factors of METT-TC–mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, and civil considerations–make up the major subject categories into which relevant information is grouped for military operations. (See FM 6-0.) Relevant information is all information of importance to the commander and staff in the exercise of command and control (FM 3-0). In counterinsurgency operations, civil considerations are prominent in IPB analysis.
TERRAIN AND WEATHER
4-8. Expect terrain in counterinsurgency operations to be complex. Unit AOs may consist of various types of terrain, ranging from jungles, mountains, and deserts to rural or urbanized areas. In conventional operations, the primary factor is the natural landscape. In counterinsurgency operations, man-made factors may be the primary terrain factors that a unit must consider. Some of these factors that ought to be considered are the density of construction and population within the AO, the street patterns within urban areas, and compartmentalization of areas within the AO (such as areas separated by waterways or highways) and functional zones for example, the functions different areas serve within the AO, such as residential, commercial, and government areas).
4-9. In addition to weather effects on friendly operations, counterinsurgency operations require the consideration of how weather effects the local population. For example, an ongoing drought within the unit’s AO may mean that more outside aid is required. An insurgency movement may take advantage of the population’s potential dissatisfaction to recruit support and may even be able to make food or other desirable aid available, thus making the insurgents look like the only competent/legitimate authorities in the region. If the government does not provide necessary aid, the population could view those they believe to be in charge in an increasingly hostile manner for failing to help prevent a disaster.
4-10. Civil considerations comprise the manmade infrastructure, civilian institutions, and attitudes and activities of the civilian leaders, populations, and organizations within an area of operations influence the conduct of military operations (FM 6-0). They include the population of an area and information about it. Factors of interest include the gender and mix of the populace; the cultural, religious, and socio-economic beliefs and thinking; and the beliefs, attitudes, and actions of groups and individuals.
Population and Culture
4-11. The center of gravity in counterinsurgency operations is the population. Therefore, understanding the local society and gaining its support is critical to success in. For US forces to operate effectively among a local population and gain and maintain their support, it is important to develop a thorough understanding of the society and its culture, to include its history, tribal/family/social structure, values, religions, customs, and needs.
4-12. The history of a people can often help explain why the population behaves the way it does. The roots of an insurgency may become clear through that knowledge. A given AO may have several different regions, each with different sets of customs. US forces can anticipate local reaction to friendly courses of action as well as avoid losing indigenous support for the mission through understanding and supporting those local customs. That support, however, must be consistent with US laws and the law of war.
4-13. Understanding and working within the social fabric of a local area is initially the most influential factor in the conduct of counterinsurgency operations. Unfortunately, this is often the factor most neglected by US forces. The density of civilians and the constant interaction required between them and US forces greatly increases the importance of social considerations. The fastest way to damage the credibility of US forces and the legitimacy of our involvement with the local national government is to ignore or violate the social mores or precepts of a particular population.
4-14. The interaction of different cultures demands greater recognition during counterinsurgency operations than in other environments. This greater need for understanding comes from the increased need for interaction with the civilian populace. Every culture has a set of norms and values, and these could involve such diverse areas as protocol and social skills, attitudes toward women, manners, food, sleep patterns, casual and close relationships, and cleanliness. Understanding these differences is only the start of preparation for counterinsurgency operations.
4-15. Religious beliefs and practices are among the most important, yet least understood, aspects of culture. The role religion plays in both culture and individual value systems varies greatly from place to place. While it is never possible to disentangle religion completely from politics, mores, and the other aspects of culture, religion plays an especially powerful and dominant role in some societies. Many conflicts have a strong religious dimension, not only in the origin of the dispute but also in the way the fight is conducted. Some religiously motivated antagonists will operate with a significantly different view of what constitutes just conduct in war than the western consensus that created the law of land warfare and the Geneva Conventions.
4-16. When assessing events, intelligence professionals consider the norms of the local culture or society. Failure to recognize, respect, understand, and incorporate an understanding of the cultural and religious aspects of the society in which US forces are interacting could rapidly lead to an erosion of the legitimacy of the mission. For example, while bribery is not an accepted norm in US society, it may be a totally acceptable practice in another society. If US intelligence professionals assess an incident of this nature using our own societal norms and values as a reference, it is probable the significance of the event will be misinterpreted.
Leaders and Institutions
4-17. US military planners should conduct interagency coordination to identify key government officials early in the operation. US policy officials determine which key HN leaders are supportive of the US military and which are not. These key personnel can provide valuable information needed for successful completion of the operations, to include local infrastructure, a common picture of cultural norms, suspected enemy strengths, and probable means of support and locations for enemy forces. In counterinsurgency missions, US forces are often supporting a state. As such it is critical to understand the potential audience.
4-18. Many governments are rife with nepotism and trading favors, are indifferent to local conditions, and support no security presence at the village level. The power of officials may be based on family and personal connections, clan loyalty, and age, and only after that on education, training, and competence. Corruption may be pervasive and institutionalized as a practical way to manage excess demand for local services.
4-19. A local government’s breakdown from a previous level of effectiveness will quickly exacerbate problems of public health and mobility. Attempts to get the local-level bureaucracy to function along US lines may produce further breakdown, passive indifference, or resentment. Any unintentional or intentional threat to the privileges of ranking local officials or tribal leaders or to members of their families will be stubbornly resisted. Avoiding such threats and assessing the importance of particular officials requires knowledge of family ties.
4-20. US military planners must realize that the local populace will behave in their perceived self-interest. They will be keenly aware of five sets of interests at work: those of the US forces, the insurgent/hostile elements, the local opportunists, the legitimate government, and the general population. All five elements assess these interests constantly in order to ascertain their own stakes, risks, and advantages.
Refugees and Ethnic Groups
4-21. Another significant cultural challenge is the presence of refugees within a unit’s AO. Rural immigrants displaced by conflict, combined with city residents, can create a significant problem. Noncombatants and refugees without hostile intent can disrupt local missions. Additionally, there may be insurgent troops, criminal gangs, vigilantes, paramilitary factions, and factions within those factions hiding in the waves of the displaced.
4-22. The enemy knows it is nearly impossible for US forces to accurately identify friend from foe from disinterested. Local combat situations can change with bewildering speed, as the supposed innocent becomes an active aggressor within close quarters and an indefensible position. In Chechnya, Chechen rebels and Hezbollah terrorists effectively used the cover of refugees to attack occupying forces. The Chechens counted on the ferocious nature of the Russian counterattack causing heavy civilian casualties to gain support from the indigenous population for the Chechen separatist cause.
4-23. One goal of insurgent forces will be to place stress on the US and local national government soldiers in order to break down discipline and operational integrity. The constant pressure of differentiating friend from foe taxed and sometimes undermined ROE from Belfast to Lebanon, and in some cases, entire missions.
Social Structure and Customs
4-24. Defining the structure of the social hierarchy is often key to understanding the population. Identifying those local personnel in positions of authority is important. These local officials, tribal leaders or village elders are often the critical nodes of the society and influence the actions of the population at large. In many societies nominal titles do not equal power influence does. Many «leaders» are figureheads, and the true authority lies elsewhere.
4-25. Most areas around the world are not governed by the rule of law, but instead rely upon tradition. Often tribal membership, ethnic loyalty, and religious affiliation provide societal cohesion and the protocol of proper behavior and ethics in dealing with outsiders, such as the US and multinational partners. It is important to understand the complicated inner workings of a society where potential internal conflicts predominate. This is difficult and requires a thorough examination of a society’s culture and history.
4-26. Identifying and understanding trends and patterns of activity provide important information for intelligence analysts and mission planners. Every local area has discrete and discernible patterns of daily activity. The time of heaviest activity along a line of communication is one case in point. Trade and business transactions, market sales, religious practices, governmental functions, and criminal activity are other examples of daily behavior than can be analyzed for consistencies. Disruptions or irregularities in these patterns serve as a warning that something is amiss in the area.
4-27. It is important to remember that while certain general patterns do exist, most regional areas are normally composed of a multitude of different peoples, each with its own standards of conduct. Treating the local population as a homogenous entity can lead to false assumptions, cultural misunderstandings, and a poor operational picture. Individuals act independently and in their own best interest, and this will not always coincide with friendly courses of action. Do not ignore the presence or actions of the different population components within an AO when developing assessments.
4-28. Understanding the infrastructure and the interrelationships of various elements within a unit’s AO and the relationship with neighboring AOs is critical in counterinsurgency operations. Infrastructure has physical, social, economic, and political elements.
4-29. Intelligence staffs identify critical physical infrastructure components (transportation and communications systems, water treatment and waste disposal facilities) and the effects they have on the local, regional, and national populations. Insurgents will use and exploit existing infrastructure. A common method insurgents use to display the weakness of the current local national government is to disrupt or destroy critical components of infrastructure, such as power stations and waterworks, that affect large portions of the local population. They may also create additional infrastructure where gaps in government-provided services exist in order gain the good will of the local population. If successful, this demonstrates the government’s inability to protect critical infrastructure components and their inability to provide basic services such as security for the population.
Social, Economic, and Political
4-30. The social infrastructure includes communication, religious, and education centers; and the roles of tribes, families, casts, and clans. Economic infrastructure includes banks, stock markets, and the monetary control system. Political infrastructure includes political parties, party headquarters and offices, government offices, and state institutions.
INTELLIGENCE PREPARATION OF THE BATTLEFIELD ASSESSMENT
4-31. During the military decision making process, intelligence personnel provide commanders with a battlefield assessment based upon a systematic approach known as IPB. IPB consists of four steps:
Define the battlefield environment.
Describe the battlefield’s effects.
Evaluate the threat.
Determine threat courses of action.
DEFINE THE BATTLEFIELD ENVIRONMENT
4-32. In defining a counterinsurgency environment, intelligence professionals do the following:
Consider the nature and strategy of the insurgency.
Are there internal factors, external factor, or both that form a basis for the insurgency?
Is there an identifiable pattern of insurgent activities?
Does the insurgent organization function primarily within the established political system or in open competition with it?
Determine international and national support to the insurgents. Include sources of moral, physical, and financial support.
Consider the neighboring countries, boundaries and frontiers, and coastal waterways.
Consider third-country support for the insurgency.
Analyze the HN population, government, military, demographics, and threat.
Who are the vulnerable elements in the population?
Are they subject to insurgent exploitation?
Evaluate HN political structure, economy, foreign policy and relations, and policies on military use.
Consider if US presence, or potential presence, by itself could be a catalyst for insurgent activity.
DESCRIBE THE BATTLEFIELD’S EFFECTS (TERRAIN AND HUMAN)
4-33. In defining the battlefield’s effects in a counterinsurgency environment, intelligence professionals do the following:
Determine points of entry, infiltration and exfiltration routes, C2 structures for operations, and agricultural areas.
Evaluate weather’s effects on the mobility of insurgents and their logistic efforts, for example, the availability of food supply due to weather extremes.
Consider migration and settlement patterns to identify which areas are progovernment or proinsurgent. Identify the locations of groups that create territorial boundaries the insurgents may try to make autonomous to gain political advantage.
Determine how political and religious affiliation and practices influence the people’s attitudes towards both enemy and friendly operations.
Examine efforts to create or increase unrest and dissension among the population. Are the insurgents conducting IO against existing or proposed HN policies and programs?
Evaluate how economics and money affect the insurgents’ ability to conduct offensive operations. They will influence the populace’s active support for or against the insurgency.
EVALUATE THE THREAT
4-34. In evaluating the threat in a counterinsurgency environment, intelligence professionals do the following:
Identify which insurgent groups are present, thought to be present, or have access to your AO.
Is the insurgency linked to a racial, religious, ethnic, or regional base?
Does the insurgent organization function through predominately legal means or clandestine operations?
What and who constitute the organizational elements of the movement?
Identify leaders, trainers, recruiters, staff members, and logistics personnel.
Is the leadership clearly defined or do competing actions exist?
Is the insurgency affiliated with any political, labor, student, or social organization?
What is the philosophy of the leadership?
Develop doctrinal templates based on observed operating procedures.
Assess and analyze the number of functional specialties within the insurgency. For example, the number of trainers for a specific weapon might indicate the type of tactics, level of readiness, and the number of personnel trained.
Determine the types of weapons that the insurgents have at their disposal. Sophisticated weaponry may be an indicator of external support as well as the insurgents’ capability to attack important and possibly well-defended targets.
Consider the insurgent organization.
Does it have a high degree of command and control?
What is the level of planning and training within the organization?
Analyze movement patterns. Movements may coincide with operational or logistic activities.
DETERMINE ENEMY COURSES OF ACTION
4-35. Enemy courses of action might include the following:
Attacks and raids on police stations, security forces, military installations, or other HN government and security-related facilities.
Attacks on public utility installations (power, water, telephone) or other forms of economic sabotage (pipelines, transmission towers, ports, marketplaces).
Kidnapping, murder, or intimidation of public officials (and their families or family members) supporting US or HN forces.
Propaganda directed against the populace or local economic leaders (such as shopkeepers and business owners).
Ambushes of HN or friendly convoys; kidnapping of drivers and insurgent demands.
Attacks on the population.
4-36. Evaluate the most vulnerable locations and facilities that can quickly affect the greatest number of the populace–such as power plants; transmission lines; road, rail and water networks; and local open-air markets–to determine the most likely locations for potential insurgent attacks, sabotage, raids, and roadblocks–most likely insurgent course of action. Insurgent targets and attacks will not be based on a US-style of thinking and application of ethics.
4-37. Use trend and pattern analysis to template, predict, and prioritize insurgent activity to include
Movement around potential objectives, such as infiltration or exfiltration routes.
Assembly points, rally points, and staging areas.
Centers of proinsurgent populations. Include an evaluation of individual villages and large political divisions, such as states and provinces.
Areas of antigovernment influence and residences of insurgent leadership or key sympathizers.
Location of known and suspected base camps.
Location of known and suspected training camps.
Logistic routes and transshipment hubs.
Cache sites, water sources, agricultural areas, and fuel storage and production areas.
Locations of communications equipment. Include commercial establishments and government installations where such equipment may be purchased or stolen.
Potential ambush sites.
4-38. Insurgents require the support of the local population. That support can be either active or passive. In order to succeed, they must increase the support of the local population in their favor. To defeat the insurgency, US forces assist the local authorities in separating the insurgents from the population and ultimately in gaining the population’s active support. If a substantial portion of the population does not actively oppose the insurgency, the insurgents may determine to attack soft targets and purposely inflict civilian casualties to both intimidate the local populace and undermine the legitimacy of HN local authorities.
4-39. Rarely are only two sides involved in modern conflicts. More often, one ethnonational group opposes other groups with conflicting interests. This poses a significantly more complex set of enemy or potential adversaries–entities that leaders must understand. Insurgents try to create conditions to defeat US and HN forces and to slow the support for friendly forces. Increasingly, insurgent groups have no regard for the law of war. They have used human shields, targeted innocent civilians, and occupied religious and health facilities as sanctuaries. These actions and techniques offset US advantages and make it more difficult to locate and defeat the enemy. US reaction to these tactics can also have tremendous propaganda appeal.
4-40. Insurgents develop organizational structures that are functional for their particular operational environment. Because insurgents usually operate in a hostile environment, security is a primary consideration. Therefore, insurgent organizations may be organized both conventionally and unconventionally.
4-41. An unconventional or cellular structure protects members of the organization and allows for better security. Individual elements or cells can operate relatively isolated from other elements or cells, thereby creating increased security. In the event of defection or capture, no one member can identify more than a few others. Some elements within the organization may have multifunction cells that combine several skills into one operational entity, while others create cells of specialists that come together for an operation on an ad hoc basis.
4-42. Due to its unconventional nature, the insurgent threat is difficult to determine and identify. When determining and identifying the insurgent threat, consider the following:
Threat staging area. A threat staging area is a geographic area from which insurgent organizations and elements coordinate operations, logistics, finance, and recruiting, as well as stage and plan missions. These areas can be thought of as either the operational or strategic areas in which the group conducts the majority of its «behind-the-scenes» activity, as well as defining the area in which the group has the largest sympathetic base to support its goals.
Threat area of operations. Threat AOs are those areas in which an insurgent organization conducts operations against its enemy.
Threat objectives. These are long- and short-term insurgent goals that may include but are not limited to —
Attracting publicity to the group’s cause.
Demonstrating the group’s power.
Demonstrating government and US weakness.
Obtaining logistic support.
Causing a government or US forces to overreact.
4-43. See Annex D for order of battle factors.
4-44. In counterinsurgency operations, threat analysis is a continual process of compiling and examining all available information concerning potential insurgent activities that target elements of the population, local security forces, and facilities or bases. A comprehensive threat analysis reviews the factors of an insurgent’s existence, capability, intentions, history, and targeting, as well as the security environment within which friendly forces operate. Threat analysis is an essential step in identifying the probability of insurgent attacks and results in a threat assessment.
4-45. When conducting an insurgency, the threat will normally conform to the five lowintensity imperatives (political dominance, unity of effort, adaptability, legitimacy, and perseverance) (see FM 7-98). Under the conditions of insurgency, the analyst places more emphasis on —
Developing population status overlays showing potential hostile areas.
Developing an understanding of how each insurgent organization operates and is organized.
Determining primary operating or staging areas.
Determining mobility corridors and escape routes.
Determining the most likely targets.
Determining where the threat’s logistic facilities are located and how their support organizations operate.
Determining the level of popular support (active and passive).
Determining the recruiting techniques and methods of each insurgent organization.
Locating neutrals and those actively opposing these organizations. Using pattern analysis and other tools to establish links between each insurgent organization and other organizations.
Determining the underlying social, political, ideological, and economic issues that caused the insurgency and that are continuing to cause the members of the organization as well as elements of the population to support it.
4-46. As discussed earlier, evaluation of the threat in counterinsurgency operations begins early and covers a wide range of factors in building an accurate threat organizational diagram. In addition to the factors discussed, consider the following:
Group collection and intelligence capabilities.
Does the actual desired end state differ from that which is publicly advocated? If so, how does that impact operations?
Do the insurgents desire a different social or political organization than that which exists under current conditions; if so, what are the differences? How will they conduct operations to achieve that goal?
4-47. Motivation (ideological, religious, monetary). Depending on the echelon, there may be an opportunity to use PSYOP against the group or its support network.
INSURGENT MEANS AND METHODS OF COMMAND AND CONTROL
4-48. While identifying the specific structure, leadership, and membership of insurgent organizations is important, it may also be extremely difficult to obtain this information. In the absence of specific information, identifying generalities about the insurgent groups will be of value to the intelligence analyst.
4-49. An insurgent organization capable of exercising C2 over long distances has greater flexibility and reach than an organization that can only operate within the limitations of the leader’s interpersonal capabilities.
International and National Support
4-50. Insurgents may receive support from the following sources:
Moral. A significant leadership or cultural figure may make pronouncements in support of an organization, activity, or action. This may have the effect of influencing international policy or increasing the success of recruitment efforts.
Physical. Physical support includes safe passage, safe houses, documentation, weapons, and training at sites inside the country.
Financial. Charities, banks, informal transfer of currency by traveler or courier.
Religious, political, and ethnic affiliations. Commonalities and differences are significant in terms of estimating potential support or opposition an insurgent organization may receive in a given area. However, in some cultures, such as the Muslim culture, the philosophy that «the enemy of my enemy is my friend» may cause strange and unprecedented relationships to form.
RECRUITING METHODS, LOCATIONS, AND TARGET AUDIENCE
4-51. An insurgent organization that recruits from an idealistic and naïve upper and middle class will differ significantly from one that recruits from prisons. Some insurgent organizations recruit university students, either to join the movement as operatives and support personnel, or to prepare for future leadership roles. Insurgents recruit lower-level personnel with little or no education because they are more susceptible to insurgent propaganda, although many insurgents come from an upper-middle class background. The impact of target audiences bears directly upon the willingness of the insurgent recruit to fully commit to the cause and to sacrifice self if deemed necessary.
4-52. A thorough analysis of the population within the AO is critical to the execution of successful counterinsurgency operations. Consider the impact the local populace may have on the threat and friendly forces, as well as their location in the AO and area of interest. When analyzing the population, the following are areas to consider:
Identify active and passive supporters and why they are supporting.
Determine what segment of the general population supports or assists the threat and how.
Determine the extent to which the population will support or impede friendly operations.
Identify and depict those segments of the population that are friendly or unfriendly toward US/multinational forces.
Identify and depict those segments of the population that are pro-government or anti-government.
Identify terrorist and/or criminal elements and their relationship to the insurgents and the general population.
Determine the availability of weapons to the general population.
4-53. Insurgents move among the local population the way conventional forces move over terrain. The military aspects of terrain (OAKOC; see FM 6-0) may be used to analyze how insurgents might use this «human terrain» to accomplish their objectives.
Observation and Fields of Fire
4-54. Individuals or groups in the population can be co-opted by one side or another to perform a surveillance or reconnaissance function, performing as moving outposts to gather information.
4-55. Local residents have intimate knowledge of the local area. Their observations can provide information and insights about what might otherwise remain a mystery. For instance, residents often know about shortcuts through town. They might also be able to observe and report on a demonstration or meeting that occurs in their area.
4-56. Unarmed combatants might provide targeting intelligence to armed combatants engaged in a confrontation. This was readily apparent in Mogadishu, where unarmed combatants with the ability to observe friendly force activities without the threat of being engaged instructed hidden threat forces on where to fire.
4-57. Deception and adversarial propaganda threats may hinder a clear view of the threat’s tactics or intentions.
4-58. Fields of fire can be extremely limited by the presence of noncombatants in a combat zone because restrictive ROE may prohibit firing into a crowd.
4-59. Figuratively, the population or regions within a local area can be identified as nonlethal targets for IO.
Avenues of Approach
4-60. Populations present during operations physically restrict movement and maneuver by limiting or changing the width of avenues of approach.
4-61. People may assist movement if a group can be used as human barriers between one combatant group and another. Refugee flows, for example, can provide a concealed avenue of approach for members of an enemy force.
4-62. A certain individual can provide an avenue of approach to a specific target audience when acting as a «mouthpiece» for an IO mission.
4-63. The population in counterinsurgency operations is key terrain. This is based on the idea that public opinion and their support or lack thereof can change the course or the aims of a mission. The United States’ withdrawal from Somalia following the outcry after seeing a dead Soldier being dragged through the streets of Mogadishu is often used in urban operations literature as an example of the power of an audience. Determining which population or portions of it are key to a mission should not be limited to broad-brush characterizations of large populations, however. Certain sectors or individuals within a population can be as pivotal in modern engagements as a piece of high ground was in past eras, or as the entire US population was in regard to Mogadishu.
4-64. Captured combatants or a well-informed noncombatant can provide valuable information about the enemy. These individuals can be key terrain in terms of the information they can provide
4-65. A group of people that US forces are deployed to protect might be considered key terrain because loss of that group’s respect could jeopardize the entire operation.
4-66. Congregated people can be considered key terrain. Whether moving or stationary, a large gathering might be a ripe target for attack, closer observation, or attempts at manipulation.
4-67. One of the largest obstacles to friendly operations is the portion of the population that actively supports the insurgent.
4-68. People conducting their daily activities will often «get in the way» of any type of operation. For instance, curiosity-driven crowds in Haiti often affected patrols by inadvertently forcing units into the middle of the street and pushing them into a single file. No harm was inflicted, but the unit was made move vulnerable to sniper and grenade attacks.
4-69. Strategically, the world audience, as well as its local contingent, can create political, cultural, and ideological obstacles to a mission. The US audience watching events unfold in Vietnam can be understood as an obstacle to the government’s strategy of pursuing its strategic objectives. The cultural differences apparent when US forces were deployed for Operation Desert Storm could have been an obstacle if not adequately addressed. For instance, a PSYOP flier produced to encourage a sense of unity among the Arab populations included a picture of two men holding handsa sight not common in Western cultures. A flier designed in accordance with Western standards might not have been as effective.
Cover and Concealment
4-70. Civilian populations provide ubiquitous concealment for nonuniformed forces. Threat forces operating in any part of a local urban area can instantly blend into any type of crowd or activity.
4-71. Threat forces often find cover by operating within a neutral group. For instance, al Qaeda operatives and fighters are able to often move freely among and mix with the rural populace living near Afghanistan-Pakistan border. However, these same people have difficulty remaining nondescript and moving freely among urban populations due to regional differences in their accent, mode of dress, hair and beard styles, and skin pigment. Reportedly, insurgents attempted to move in the company of women and children (acting as family members) and mixed among the populace exiting and entering Fallujah during operations there in spring 2004.
TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT
4-72. Human intelligence is the collection by a trained HUMINT collector of foreign information from people and multimedia to identify elements, intentions, composition, strength, dispositions, tactics, equipment, personnel, and capabilities. It uses human sources and a variety of collection methods, both passively and actively, to gather information to satisfy the commander’s intelligence requirements and cross-cue other intelligence disciplines (FM 2-0).
4-73. During counterinsurgency operations, the most important information and intelligence will come from the population and those in direct contact with them–HUMINT. The quantity and quality of this information and intelligence will depend on the credibility of the US forces, the continuous security they provide the local population, and their ability to interact with the local population (communicate and establish relationships with members of the local population). Every member of the US force, whether on or off duty, is an informal HUMINT collector and must be aware of the overall intelligence requirements and how their interactions and observations may assist in the intelligence collection plan. This awareness can and should be developed by regular briefings and debriefings.
4-74. Trained HUMINT collectors obtain information from people and multimedia to identify elements, intentions, composition, strength, dispositions, tactics, equipment, personnel, and capabilities within and affecting the local area. HUMINT can assist to establish and more accurately understand the sociocultural characteristics of the local area.
4-75. HUMINT sources can provide early warning of deep-rooted problems awaiting US forces during counterinsurgency operations. HUMINT collectors can conduct debriefings, screenings, liaison, HUMINT contact operations, document exploitation, interrogations, and tactical questioning in support of the commander’s intelligence requirements.
4-76. Information provided by HUMINT can greatly assist the intelligence staff in deducing critical patterns, trends, and networks within the local area. HUMINT collection team personnel provide these types of capabilities in support of tactical forces. The S-2/G-2/J-2X coordinates these capabilities between the tactical, operational, and strategic levels, and can provide their units with access to pertinent national level HUMINT.
4-77. Intelligence planning staffs must be aware that battlespace cannot generally be defined in geographical terms for purposes of intelligence collection. This is especially important when determining the allocation of HUMINT assets. Concentrations of humans on the battlefield do not necessarily denote a need to concentrate HUMINT assets in those locations. Threat actions outside a unit’s AO may be a source of significant events inside a unit’s AO. Additionally, information from sources in one AO may impact operations in a distant AO. Creating arbitrary intelligence boundaries can result in a lack of timely fusion of all critical elements of information that may be available.
4-78. Imagery intelligence is intelligence derived from the exploitation of imagery collected by visual photography, infrared, lasers, multispectral sensors, and radar. These sensors produce images of objects optically, electronically, or digitally on film, electronic display devices, or other media (JP 1-02).
4-79. IMINT has some severe limitations during counterinsurgency operations. Imaging systems cannot distinguish between insurgents masquerading as civilians and the general population. Additionally, imaging systems cannot see through buildings in built-up areas, so low-flying aerial imagery collection platforms often have restricted fields of vision. Likewise they cannot see threats that may be located inside buildings. Additionally, aerial platforms that do not have standoff capabilities may be at risk of being destroyed by local enemy air defense fire
4-80. There are several key advantages that imagery can provide to the commander. UAV imagery may be one of the fastest, least risky methods by which to conduct reconnaissance of specific areas and to update and verify current maps of that area, showing clear routes, obstacles such as damaged and destroyed buildings, and intact and destroyed bridges. The topographical team can use this imagery to create updated mapping products for planning and operational uses.
4-81. Cameras co-located with MASINT systems, such as REMBASS, and activated when those systems are triggered can give the commander additional «eyes on» named areas of interest without wasting manpower by continuously staffing an observation post in those locations.
4-82. Providing patrols with a digital camera or video camera can greatly assist in the debriefing process and allow the intelligence staff personnel to make their own judgments about items of interest that the patrol reports. Videotaping of events, such as a demonstration, can allow analysts who were not on the scene to identify key elements, leaders, and potential indicators to help preclude future incidents. Gun-camera images from aircraft that can provide a stand-off reconnaissance platform may give valuable insight into enemy TTPs. Thermal sights on a vehicle patrolling an urban street late at night may note the hot engine of a vehicle on the side of the road, possibly indicating suspicious activity.
4-83. The Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS) can provide such information as the amount of vehicular traffic entering and leaving an area via multiple avenues, which can be useful when trying to determine if the enemy is shifting forces into or out of a specific region, or if there is a covert attempt to exfiltrate or infiltrate the region via lesserused avenues. This could include monitoring traffic crossing international borders.
4-84. The National Geospatial Agency can provide a wide range of imagery products for use prior to and during operations in the urban environment. These products are usually easier to obtain prior to deployment and are often critical to the initial planning stages of an operation.
4-85. Signals intelligence is a category of intelligence comprising either individually or in combination all communications intelligence, electronic intelligence, and foreign instrumentation signals intelligence, however transmitted; intelligence is derived from communications, electronics, and foreign instrumentation signals (JP 1-02). SIGINT has three subcategories:
Communications intelligence. The intelligence derived from foreign communications by other than the intended recipients (JP 1-02).
Electronic intelligence. Technical and geolocation intelligence derived from foreign non-communications electromagnetic radiations emanating from other than nuclear detonations or radioactive sources (JP 1-02)
Foreign instrumentation signals intelligence. Technical information and intelligence derived from the intercept of foreign electromagnetic emissions associated with the testing and operational deployment of non-US aerospace, surface, and subsurface systems. Foreign instrumentation signals intelligence is a subcategory of signals intelligence. Foreign instrumentation signals include but are not limited to telemetry, beaconry, electronic interrogators, and video data links (JP 1-02).
4-86. SIGINT is of value whenever there is any form of electronic emission, whether from communications (such as hand-held or citizen’s band radios and mobile phones), combat net radio transmissions, or for other purposes such as the radio control of explosive devices or use of radar for surface-to-air missile guidance. The easy availability of high-tech communications and monitoring equipment now allows most nations to have a relatively sophisticated SIGINT capability.
4-87. Insurgent groups may use unencrypted, low-power, communications systems to conduct local operations. Ground-based SIGINT collection assets must be properly positioned in advance to be certain that they can obtain the best possible intelligence from these sources.
4-88. Collection of unencrypted threat signals can provide key indicators for threat courses of action. Patterns in the amount of known enemy encrypted signals provide indications of specific threat courses of action. Because of signal bounce within urban areas, direction-finding capabilities for all SIGINT collection systems are significantly impaired. During counterinsurgency operations, it may be possible for the local authorities to monitor local telephone lines and provide relevant information they collect to US forces. Likewise, it may be possible for US forces to tip off local national authorities as to what telephone numbers may yield valuable intelligence.
MEASUREMENT AND SIGNATURE INTELLIGENCE
4-89. MASINT is technically derived intelligence that detects, locates, tracks, identifies, or describes the specific characteristics of fixed and dynamic target objects and sources. It also includes the additional advanced processing and exploitation of data derived from IMINT and SIGINT collection.
4-90. MASINT provides important intelligence at the tactical level. Systems such as ground surveillance radars have limited uses in the urban environments because of the lack of wideopen spaces in which they most effectively operate. For that same reason, they can cover large, open areas that are possible avenues of approach or infiltration/exfiltration routes within a unit’s AO. Systems such as REMBASS and the Platoon Early Warning Device can play a primary role in monitoring many of the numerous avenues of approach that cannot be covered by human observers due to manpower constraints. REMBASS can monitor avenues such as subterranean passageways (or entrances and exits to such passageways), entrances and exits on buildings, fire escapes on buildings, base camp perimeters, and traffic flow along routes (especially foot trails that may be used to infiltrate and exfiltrate personnel and equipment between urban and rural areas).
4-91. CI is focused on countering adversary intelligence collection activities against US forces. During counterinsurgency operations, CI personnel primarily investigate adversary intelligence collection threats and provide force protection assistance. In conjunction with HUMINT collections, CI agents conduct screening operations to identify personnel that may be of CI interest or have CI leads. CI screening is also conducted during the process of hiring HN citizens (such as linguists). CI investigations and operations may cross-cue the other intelligence disciplines and may in term be cross-cued by the other disciplines. CI personnel work in conjunction with military police, engineers, and medical service personnel to create threat vulnerability assessments that provide commanders and leaders with a comprehensive force protection assessment.
4-92. CI personnel provide analysis of the adversary’s HUMINT, IMINT, SIGINT, and MASINT capabilities in support of intelligence collection, terrorism, and sabotage in order to develop countermeasures against them. CI analytical products are important tools in course of action development in the military decision making process.
4-93. CI technical services that may be available and of use during counterinsurgency operations include surveillance, computer network operations (assisting in protecting US information and information systems while exploiting and/or attacking adversary information and information systems), technical surveillance countermeasures (identifying technical collection activities being carried out by adversary intelligence entities), IO, and counter-signals intelligence. As with scouts and reconnaissance patrols, CI teams are most effective when linguist support is provided.
ISR PLANNING IN COUNTERINSURGENCY OPERATIONS
4-94. ISR tasks are the actions of the intelligence collection effort. ISR tasks consist of three categories:
4-95. Developing the counterinsurgency operational ISR plan is different from developing the plan supporting conventional operations. Due to the unconventional nature of the counterinsurgency environment, the ISR effort will be significantly more complex in combining and integrating HUMINT collectors and surveillance assets with the capabilities and tasks of limited ISR-assigned assets as well as integrating with interagency resources. Techniques must be modified for every operation to accomplish ISR requirements–each operation is unique. Additionally, local, national, and multinational ISR assets must be integrated into the overall ISR plan at both the local, district, and regional levels.
4-96. The key to successful ISR efforts is the integration of all ISR-capable units, local and HN government and interagency organizations throughout the entire operations process (plan, prepare, execute, and assess). The coordinated actions of the entire staff to develop the threat and environment portion of the common operational picture are key to providing successful ISR support to the commander. (For information on reconnaissance and surveillance tasks, see FM 7-15.)
Psychological Operations and Military Police Support
5-1. As discussed in Chapter 2, leaders must incorporate PSYOP and military police support into planning for counterinsurgency operations. PSYOP has an integral role in influencing behaviors and attitudes of friendly, neutral, and hostile target audiences. Tactical PSYOP teams often will accompany combat units that have close contact with indigenous personnel. Leaders must know how to use the PSYOP units effectively to enhance success of the mission. Military police assist commanders with area security, criminal investigations, maintaining law and order, and detaining prisoners or other personnel. Military police can also provide support to establish or enhance integrated police and penal systems, consistent with US law. This chapter is an overview of the roles these two support units play in a counterinsurgency environment.
SECTION I PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS
5-2. The purpose of PSYOP is to influence target audience behaviors so that they support US national policy objectives and the combatant commander’s intentions at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of war. PSYOP provide a commander the means to employ a nonlethal capability across the range of military operations (offense, defense, stability, and support) and spectrum of conflict, from peace through conflict to war and during postconflict operations. (See FM 3-13 for a discussion of PSYOP as an IO element.)
MISSION OF PSYCOHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS
5-3. The mission of PSYOP is to influence the behavior of foreign target audiences to support US national objectives. PSYOP accomplishes this by conveying selected information and advising on actions that influence the emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign audiences. Behavioral change is at the root of the PSYOP mission. Although concerned with the mental processes of the target audience, it is the observable modification of target audience behavior that determines the mission success of PSYOP. Leaders and Soldiers must recognize that everything they do or choose not to do has a psychological impact.
5-4. PSYOP is an integral part of all counterinsurgency activities. They meet the specific requirements for each area and operation. Mission planning for PSYOP in counterinsurgency must be consistent with US and multinational objectives–military, economic, and political. PSYOP planners must be thoroughly familiar with all aspects of the HN environment in which PSYOP is employed. This includes the history, culture, economics, politics, regional influence, and other elements that affect the people in the HN.
5-5. Commanders must consider the psychological impact of military and nonmilitary courses of action. PSYOP emphasize assessing the potential threat to the HN and the United States. PSYOP support the achievement of national goals by specific target audiences. In counterinsurgency, specific PSYOP goals exist for the following target groups:
Insurgents. To create dissension, disorganization, low morale, subversion, and defection within insurgent forces. No single way exists to influence foreign targets deliberately. Planning stems from the viewpoint of those affected by a conflict. The HN’s government needs national programs designed to influence and win insurgents over to its side.
Civilian populace. To gain, preserve, and strengthen civilian support for the HN’s government and its counterinsurgency programs.
Military forces. To strengthen military support, with emphasis on building and maintaining the morale of these forces. The loyalty, discipline, and motivation of the forces are critical factors in combating an insurgency.
Neutral elements. To gain the support of uncommitted foreign groups inside and outside the HN. Effective ways of gaining support are to reveal the subversive activities and to bring international pressure to bear on any external hostile power sponsoring the insurgency.
External hostile powers. To convince them the insurgency will fail.
Local government. To establish and maintain credibility.
5-6. PSYOP can assist counterinsurgency by reaching the following goals:
Countering hostile propaganda.
Improving popular support for the HN government.
Discrediting the insurgent forces to neutral groups and the insurgents themselves.
Projecting a favorable image of the HN government and the United States.
Supporting defector programs.
Providing close and continuous PSYOP support to CMO.
Establishing HN command support of positive populace control and protection from insurgent activities.
Informing the international community of HN and US intent and goodwill.
Passing instructions to the HN populace.
Developing HN PSYOP capabilities.
TACTICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS
5-7. At the tactical level, PSYOP are the supported commander’s most readily available asset to communicate with foreign target audiences. Tactical PSYOP forces provide a powerful capability to the supported commander whether providing information during humanitarian assistance operations or broadcasting surrender instructions while supporting combat operations. PSYOP disseminate products at the tactical level at the most personal level: through face-to-face communication, dissemination of visual products, or from the close proximity of a loudspeaker. Tactical PSYOP Soldiers can often obtain immediate feedback from the target audience they are trying to influence. When attached to a maneuver battalion or company, the tactical PSYOP team disseminates PSYOP products using visual, audio, or audiovisual means. The tactical loudspeakers employed by the teams can achieve immediate and direct contact with a target audience and are used heavily during counterinsurgency operations.
5-8. Tactical PSYOP teams can perform other tasks. In addition to disseminating printed materials, they perform face-to-face communication, gather and assess the effectiveness of friendly PSYOP and propaganda, and acquire PSYOP-relevant information from the local populace.
TACTICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS TEAM
5-9. TPTs provide PSYOP dissemination in support of operations conducted by conventional and SOF units. The TPT is a three-person team commanded by a staff sergeant. The TPT’s primary purpose is to integrate and execute tactical PSYOP into the supported commander’s operation. The TPT also advises the commander and staff on the psychological effects of their operations on the target audience in their AO, as well as the effects of propaganda, and answer all PSYOP-related questions. The TPT can conduct face-to-face, communication, loudspeaker operations, and dissemination of approved audio, audiovisual, and printed products. They are instrumental in the gathering of PSYOP-relevant information, conducting town or area assessments, observing impact indicators, and gathering pretesting and posttesting data. TPTs also conduct interviews with the target audience. They take pictures and document cultural behavior for later use in products. TPTs often play a role in establishing rapport with foreign audiences and identifying key communicators that can be used to achieve US national objectives. Tactical PSYOP can increase the supported unit commander’s ability to operate on the battlefield by reducing or minimizing civilian interference.
5-10. Tactical PSYOP can potentially reduce the number of casualties suffered by the supported unit by reducing the effectiveness of insurgent forces through surrender appeals and cease resistance messages.
5-11. Tactical PSYOP can assist the supported unit commander in gaining the tactical advantage on the battlefield through the use of deception measures, allowing the commander to have the element of surprise.
5-12. In high intensity conflict, a TPT is normally assigned to each maneuver battalion. In stability operations in general and in counter insurgency in particular, the TPT should support each company or Special Forces ODA. The TPT must interact with the local population continuously to be effective. Most operations that interact with the population regularly are planned and executed at the company/ODA level. Given current force protection doctrine the TPT will not be effective if employed above the company/ODA level in supporting counter insurgency.
ADVISING THE SUPPORTED COMMANDER
5-13. The TPT leader plays a key role as advisor to the supported commander. The leader analyzes proposed actions by the supported unit and how they may affect the target audiences within the AO. PSYOP planners are involved in the targeting process. For example, if the supported commander wants to destroy a bridge that is used by local civilians to transport goods to and from market, the TPT leader should advise him on the possible adverse effect this may have on the civilians. The TPT leader may also advise the commander on specific insurgent forces to target with PSYOP in order to reduce their effectiveness.
5-14. Loudspeaker operations are an extension of face-to-face communications. During operations in which violence is an element, the loudspeaker is the most effective PSYOP medium. Loudspeakers achieve immediate and direct contact with the enemy. When a loudspeaker broadcasts, the enemy becomes a captive audience that cannot escape the message. The loudspeaker can move rapidly to wherever an exploitable PSYOP opportunity is found and can follow the target audience when the target audience moves. The loudspeaker achieves, in effect, face-to-face communication with the adversary. Loudspeakers transmit speeches, music, news, warnings, or sound effects.
5-15. The dissemination of printed products by TPTs and other Soldiers is a very effective way of disseminating PSYOP to target audiences. TPTs usually disseminate printed products by hand, in a face-to-face manner, which lends credibility to the product. Following is a list of some of the types of printed products a TPT might disseminate: posters, novelty items, leaflets, handbills, newspapers, pamphlets, and magazines.
5-16. Face-to-face communication is the foundation of tactical PSYOP and the most common and effective capability that TPTs bring to the supported unit. Increasing rapport, trust, and credibility with the target audience is accomplished through effective face-to-face communication. This method also allows PSYOP Soldiers the best way of engaging with a target audience about complex issues. The give and take of personal communication is the most effective form of PSYOP over the long term because it builds rapport and establishes a personal connection with the target audience.
PRETESTING AND POSTTESTING
5-17. PSYOP personnel use pretesting and posttesting to predict and assess the effectiveness of products on a target audience. An important function of TPTs is that of testing.
TOWN AND AREA ASSESSMENTS
5-18. This assessment collects detailed information that is useful for the development of PSYOP. TPTs must ensure these town and area assessments are as complete as possible and forward them up the chain of command so they can be incorporated into higher planning and shared with intelligence sections benefiting all levels of command.
RADIO AND TELEVISION STATION ASSESSMENTS
5-19. TPTs assess radio and television stations on almost every mission. Once the TPT makes contact with a station manager, it is important that they maintain that relationship. Establishing a good, habitual working relationship can be an effective way to help ensure the ability to exploit the indigenous broadcast capability, such as a radio station.
5-20. TPTs will often find themselves assisting in the control of crowds and defusing a potentially hostile situation. This may occur as a member of a planned quick reaction force or on the spur of the moment.
PROPAGANDA ASSESSMENTS AND COUNTERPROPAGANDA
5-21. Propaganda is any form of communication in support of national objectives designed to influence the opinions, emotions, attitudes, or behavior of any group in order to benefit the sponsor, either directly or indirectly (JP 1-02). Propaganda can be directed against an enemy or potential adversary to disrupt or influence any instrument of national power–diplomatic information, military, or economic. This information is normally directed at the United States, multinational partners, and key audiences in the AO. PSYOP personnel advise the commander and staff of the current situation regarding the use or anticipated use of adversary propaganda in the AO. PSYOP personnel advise commanders on recommended counterpropaganda measures to defeat or diminish the impact of propaganda. Executing successful counterpropaganda involves all of the commander’s assets to collect the wide variety of information and propaganda existing in an area. Due to the sheer volume of information and potential sources, PSYOP forces do not have the organic ability to collect all available information.
PSYCOHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS CONSIDERATIONS
5-22. The following highlights several considerations for countering hard-line insurgencies from a PSYOP perspective:
Do not approach the insurgency as only a series of criminal acts. View the situation through the microscope of root causes of insurgencies. The actions may be the beginnings of a highly organized and deeply rooted insurrection.
Maintain the respect of the HN government officials, security forces, and civilian population. Reward repentant insurgent sympathizers. Build the infrastructure of cooperative areas and publicize those accomplishments to the less-than-supportive groups. Seeing neighbors being compensated for their help will positively influence others to join in and secure them and their family from insurgent retribution.
Emphasize the Soldier’s primary role is to both serve as an ambassador of goodwill to the populace and to destroy the insurgents.
Include the HN government and security forces in the detailed planning, message content, and operational execution of the counterinsurgency operation.
Realize that the practice of judgment, persistency, patience, tact, justice, humanity, and sympathy are necessary on the part of the HN government and supporting multinational forces. These traits are essential to the achievement of moral and psychological superiority over the insurgents. Legitimate forces must fully recognize that they represent the better state of things that are being offered to the local populace.
Follow the two guiding principles on the conduct of operations in counterinsurgency:
The objective is to achieve decisive gains with the least use of combat force and resultant loss of lives.
The relationship with the local populace must be based on security, truth, helpfulness, and kindness.
SECTION II MILITARY POLICE
5-23. Military police forces provide a robust and dynamic combat capability during a counterinsurgency. Military police Soldiers possess the diverse mobility capabilities, lethality in weapons mix, and trained communications skills to operate in any environment. The actions of the 18th Military Police Brigade supporting Operation Iraqi Freedom demonstrate the diversity and flexibility of military police functions. These Soldiers conducted over 24,000 combat patrols; processed over 3,600 enemy prisoners of war, detainees, and insurgents; confiscated over 7,500 weapons; and trained over 10,000 Iraqi police officers. Military police patrols came under direct or indirect attack over 300 times throughout the operation.
5-24. The five military police functions–maneuver and mobility support operations, area security, police intelligence operations, law and order, and internment/resettlement operations–all apply to counterinsurgency operations.
MANEUVER AND MOBILITY SUPPORT OPERATIONS
5-25. Military police support counterinsurgency operations through maneuver and mobility support operations in a variety of ways, to include–
Supporting straggler and displaced person operations.
Conducting route reconnaissance and surveillance missions.
Conducting main supply route regulation and enforcement operations (to include checkpoints and roadblocks).
5-26. Military police operations within the area security function to support counterinsurgency may include–
Conducting critical site, asset, and high-risk personnel security operations, to include security of high-value convoys (Class III or V).
Conducting combat patrols throughout the AO (to include cordon and search operations).
The military police firepower, mobility and communications ability provide critical reconnaissance, information-collection, and response-force capabilities to the command.
Police Intelligence Operations in Kosovo
TF 504 Military Police established the police intelligence collection and analysis council (PICAC) in support of TF Falcon 3B’s peacekeeping operations in Multinational Brigade (East), Kosovo. PICAC was a joint law enforcement forum with an exclusive membership of key leaders and decision makers that spanned across national and international law enforcement, security, and intelligence agencies, to include the UN Civilian Police, UN Border Police and UN Security; TF Falcon ACE chief, analyst, and targeter; CID commander and investigators; military police S-3 and S-2; and joint law enforcement intelligence and operations officers. The PICAC came together weekly for a fusion and targeting forum. The PICAC was responsible for the detention of over a dozen wanted felons, to include subjects of war crimes investigations. In fact, during one PICAC meeting, a civilian police investigator from the Kacanik municipality mentioned a criminal’s name in association with a known gang. The criminal had been convicted for attempted murder, had not served his term, and remained at large with no means to identify him. The TF Falcon ACE chief immediately phoned his office to crosscheck the criminal’s name in the ACE databases. TF Falcon ACE was able to provide a picture of the criminal during that same forum, enabling UN Civilian Police to identify and arrest the man the next day.
POLICE INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS
5-27. Police intelligence operations are a military police function that supports, enhances, and contributes to the commander’s force protection program, common operational picture, and situational understanding. The police intelligence operations function ensures that information collected during the conduct of other military police functions is provided as input to the intelligence collection effort and turned into action or reports (FM 7-15). Military police gather information regarding threat, insurgent, and criminal groups for evaluation, assessment, targeting, and interdiction. Working closely with military intelligence personnel and turning the information into actionable intelligence products, military police conduct police intelligence operations through integrated patrols (both mounted and dismounted) and coordination with joint, interagency, and multinational assets. Military police patrols greatly assist in confirming or denying the commander’s critical information requirements.
LAW AND ORDER OPERATIONS
5-28. Military police perform a variety of functions in support of counterinsurgency:
Law enforcement patrols throughout the AO, maintaining and assisting in stability and security operations.
The conduct of criminal investigations through coordination and synchronization of Criminal Investigation Division assets.
Military police are the ideal force for conducting crowd and riot control operations, including the extraction of leaders. Military police control antagonistic crowds engaged in rioting, looting, and demonstrating.
Military police are trained and equipped to assist in the training and mentoring of local police forces.
INTERNMENT AND RESETTLEMENT OPERATIONS
5-29. Military police conduct internment and resettlement operations to maintain stability and security throughout the AO. Critical assets to the proper conduct and success of internment and resettlement operations in a counterinsurgency environment are–
Staff judge advocate representatives.
Medical and dental.
Liaison with International Committee of the Red Cross.
5-30. Because of their contact with the local populace in counterinsurgency, military police must be aware of how they are perceived by the local culture. Military police must be trained to be cognizant of cultural differences that can have a negative impact on the PSYOP campaign. There also must be clear lines of authority and responsibility established for military police guarding prisoners or detainees. Negative propaganda from mistreatment of prisoners or detainees can undermine US and HN credibility. (See Appendix I.)
USA CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION DIVISION COMMAND
5-31. The Criminal Investigation Division Command investigates offenses committed against US forces or property, offenses committed by military personnel or civilians serving with US forces, or where there is a military interest. Its agents investigate violations of international agreements and the law of war. The command’s missions include–
Investigating and deterring serious crimes.
Conducting sensitive/serious investigations.
Collecting, analyzing, processing, and disseminating criminal intelligence.
Conducting protective-service operations for designated personnel.
Providing forensic-laboratory support.
Maintaining Army criminal records.
Enhancing the commander’s crime-prevention and force-protection programs.
Performing logistic security operations.
MILITARY WORKING DOGS
5-32. Military working dogs are a largely untapped resource. Dogs are trained in many skills, some of which can make a difference between success and failure of many combat missions. Dogs are trained for patrolling, searching buildings, scouting, or explosive detection. All of these skills compliment performing the five military police functions. The ability of dogs to detect an ambush and to find an explosive device planted by insurgents can be critical to the overall success of the mission. The use of military working dog teams to increase combat potential and enhance response shortages is limited only by a lack of training on how to employ dogs. Dogs cannot be used as a security measure against detainees. They can be used to reinforce security measures against penetration and attack by enemy forces. Some examples of employment techniques are–
Main supply route patrolling.
Security of designated personnel, units, or facilities.
Use during checkpoints and roadblocks.
Enemy prisoner of war, detainee, and insurgent control.
Mine and tunnel detection.
Area reconnaissance operations.
Health Considerations, Movement Security, and Civil Disturbances
6-1. Although many of the considerations applicable to counterinsurgency operations are also applicable to conventional operations, some require special emphasis. This is primarily because counterinsurgency operations often take place closer to civilians than conventional operations. This close proximity requires leaders to place greater emphasis on health considerations, movement security, and reactions to civil disturbances. This chapter addresses those considerations.
SECTION I HEALTH SERVICE SUPPORT CONSIDERATIONS
6-2. During counterinsurgency operations, Soldiers have a greater probability of close contact with the civilian population than during many conventional operations. For that reason, leaders and Soldiers work with Army Medical Department personnel and policies to conserve the fighting strength. Disease and nonbattle injury historically cause the most casualties during operations. Proper training, appropriate risk management, and the application and enforcement of effective preventive medicine measures can prevent many injuries and illnesses. Enforcement and application of health and preventive medicine standards are a leader’s responsibility. (See Appendix G.)
6-3. Appropriate and limited medical attention may be applied to indigenous populations at the discretion of the commander and proper military medical authority. This care may be appropriate where the level of local civilian medical care is limited or nonexistent. Limited medical assistance may enhance the acceptance of multinational personnel within the local population. If possible, HN medical personnel should be included when treating indigenous people. This can enhance the stature of the HN government. Media coverage of medical assistance can create a positive effect on people’s views of the HN. Nonetheless, the media should be unobtrusive to avoid creating a perception that medical attention is being provided primarily to gain favorable press attention.
6-4. Be aware of and sensitive to local culture, customs, and taboos relative to medical care and the interactions of multinational personnel with the local population. Be tactful and culturally appropriate when giving medical or humanitarian assistance.
6-5. Take care not to overextend or take on a mission greater than policy or capability dictates. Medical care must not interfere with operations from a logistic or personnel standpoint, nor constitute or imply an overall policy, absent the proper approval from appropriate authority.
6-6. Be prepared to train indigenous forces, in first aid or other health-preventive medicine subject areas. Coordination with higher preventive medicine or veterinary service personnel may be appropriate in the indigenous population area.
6-7. All interactions between Soldiers and indigenous populations are opportunities to make positive impressions and have the potential to change attitudes for the better with the local population. Every effort should be made for Soldiers to be viewed as friends of the local population; indeed, this may pave the way for willing acceptance of multinational personnel and activities.
6-8. Force protection and the timely collection of potential intelligence are always primary planning and implementation factors regardless of the mission–medical or humanitarian. Force protection is always an imperative, and intelligence gathering throughout the AO is always a top priority.
SECTION II SECURITY DURING MOVEMENTS
6-9. This section addresses convoy operations in a counterinsurgency environment. Convoys are planned and organized to control and protect vehicle movements. They are used for the tactical movement (personnel, supplies, and equipment) of combat forces and logistic units. Movements made during a counterinsurgency operation face a variety of potential threats, including local individuals, IEDs, and insurgents. Leaders continually assess the insurgents’ tactics and implement measures to counter them. Soldiers conducting movement security operations remain vigilant at all times. (See FM 3-90 and FM 55-30 for troop movement doctrine.)
6-10. Key to the success of convoy operations is ensuring all personnel and equipment are properly prepared. All Soldiers in the convoy must have a task and purpose, and know what to do on contact during execution of convoy operations. 6-11. An important leader check is to review all actions, including their timing, to avoid setting patterns. Enemies use such patterns to predict friendly actions and plan attacks. Integrate this review throughout all operations, including after-action reviews.
CONVOY PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS
6-12. Consider the following when planning and preparing for convoys:
En route recovery.
Ambulance/medical coverage. (Most ambulances have radio communications, to include casualty evacuation procedures.)
Disperse combat lifesavers throughout convoy.
Designate responsibilities such as aid and litter teams.
Prepare a rest plan for drivers.
Use window screens to deflect grenades.
Implement security measures to prevent pilferage from the convoy.
Arrange for escorts–military policy, infantry, or other.
Disperse key personnel throughout the convoy. Cross-load equipment.
Identify and verify convoy signals.
Identify en route reference points and available fire support.
Coordinate for air cover (rotary-wing security, close air support, mobile interdiction and radio frequencies and call signs).
Prepare an air guard plan.
Prepare a deception plan.
Submit a closure report at destination and upon return.
Perform a reconnaissance of the route if possible (air reconnaissance is the preferred method).
Determine threat capabilities and potential courses of action (to include a mine overlay from higher, regional or local headquarters, if available).
Civilian considerations along the route.
Establish phase lines/checkpoints along the route to monitor progress of the convoy.
Determine choke points along the route–bridges, open-air markets, over-, and underpasses?
Know whether vegetation grows next to and away from the road and thereby provides concealment.
Determine insurgent convoy attack patterns. Base this assessment on S-2 input and pattern analysis.
Vary supply convoy SP times (by no more than 1 hour sooner or later) to keep insurgents off balance.
Describe and verify the vehicle abandonment plan. Include how long to wait before stripping and leaving a disabled vehicle or trailer. Prepare a transfer-loading plan for the cargo.
Establish the condition criteria to abandon a vehicle. Establish when to destroy it, burn it, or leave it.
Arrange seats in the back of trucks to allow Soldiers riding to face out.
Increased convoy speeds (such as 50 miles per hour) limit movement up and down the convoy line.
When the roads are only one or two lanes wide, civilian traffic will impede any adjacent movement.
6-13. Execute a mission briefing two hours before the SP time. Include–
Tactical brief–enemy and friendly situation update from S-2.
Convoy execution matrix (all drivers get strip maps).
Safety brief–use risk management and risk reduction (mitigating measures).
Vehicle dispersion and distance intervals during operations and specific battle drills.
6-14. Battle drills associated with convoy operations may include–
React to civil disturbance (not blocking the route).
React to potential opposing force (blocking the route).
Air attack. Artillery/indirect fire.
Mines, booby traps, and IEDs.
Procedures for towing and being towed. React to traffic jams–partially and fully blocked roads.
React to debris on the road–garbage, dead animals, other objects/trash that can be used to conceal IEDs.
MEDEVAC procedures (see Appendix H).
6-15. Rehearsals include–
Battle drills. Describe expectations for everyone. Describe who does what in each situation.
Routes. Paint routes and terrain features on a large piece of canvas to allow drivers to «walk» the route prior to departure.
Casualty evacuation. Establish what happens to casualties. Ensure aid and litter teams are designated and know what to do. Ensure security teams are designated, assigned cardinal directions, and rehearsed.
Communications. Includes audio, visual, and radio. Ensure all know the back-up plan if primary communication fails. Can cellular phones be used effectively in an emergency? Ensure redundant means of communication are available and all know how to use them.
Primary and secondary frequencies. Ensure all know the call signs and frequencies for close air and fire support.
Security forces. Ensure roles and responsibilities are understood and rehearsed.
Response/reaction forces. Ensure leaders know the location of response/reaction forces. Ensure all know the call signs and frequencies for them.
6-16. Leaders must know how to position vehicles within the elements. Regardless of size, all columns, serials, and march units (see FM 3-90) have four parts: scout, head, main body, and trail. Each of these parts has a specific function.
6-17. Two scout vehicles proceed three to five minutes in front of the main body. The scout’s task is to ascertain road conditions and identify obstacles that may pose a threat to the convoy. When scout vehicles are employed, leaders plan to react quickly to an attack on those vehicles. However, conditions may not allow for the use of scout vehicles. If so, consider earlier convoys acting as scouts. Consider requesting the deployment and use of UAVs to reconnoiter the route.
6-18. The head is the first vehicle of each column, serial, and march unit. Each head vehicle has its own pacesetter. The pacesetter rides in this vehicle and sets the pace needed to meet the scheduled itinerary along the route. The leader at the head ensures that the column follows the proper route. He may also be required to report arrival at certain checkpoints/phase lines along the route. The head vehicle also looks for possible IEDs. When passing bridges, gunners first observe the approach and then the opposite side of the bridge. With the head vehicle performing these duties, the convoy commander has the flexibility to travel the column to enforce march discipline when the convoy speed is low. Use a heavy, well-protected vehicle as the head vehicle if mines or IEDs are expected.
6-19. The main body follows the head vehicle and consists of the majority of vehicles moving with the convoy. The main body may be divided into serials and march units for ease of control. Vehicles in the main body are armed with crew-served weapons.
6-20. The trail is the last element of each march column, serial, and march unit. The trail leader is responsible for recovery, maintenance, and medical support. The recovery vehicle, maintenance vehicles, and medical support vehicles/teams are located in the trail. The trail leader assists the convoy commander in maintaining march discipline. He or she may also be required to report clear time at checkpoints or phase lines along the route. In convoys consisting of multiple march units and serials, the convoy commander may direct minimum support in the trail of each serial or march unit and a larger trail party at the rear of the column.
6-21. The convoy commander provides trail security and communications in case the trail party is left behind to make repairs or recovery. An additional technique is to establish a heavily armed and fast security detachment trailing the convoy by no more than five minutes. This time interval enables the security detachment to react and maneuver to an insurgent’s flank to counterattack in the event the convoy is fixed or otherwise unable to maneuver against attackers.
6-22. The enemy may place IEDs at intersections where vehicles tend to slow down and bunch up. Ensure proper spacing at all times between vehicles, especially at intersections and turns.
6-23. When making turns, move the vehicle as far away from the curb as possible due to most IEDs being located on the inside turn.
6-24. Soldiers must maintain 360-degree security at all times.
6-25. Leaders must adapt quickly to the insurgents changing tactics to counter threats.
Note: Convoys must maintain 360-degree security and visibility of the surrounding areas. Attacks may occur after convoys pass a given location. Therefore, gunners must ensure rear security is maintained.
VEHICLE HARDENING PROCEDURES
6-26. When threat conditions warrant, commanders harden vehicles before convoy operations.
6-27. Adding sandbags, armor plating, ballistic glass, and other protective devices reduces the vulnerability of a hardened vehicle to the effects of explosives and small arms fire. The primary purpose of hardening is to protect the vehicle’s occupants from injury, although it may make certain vehicle components and cargo less vulnerable.
6-28. Consider the following factors in determining the method and extent of vehicle hardening when a threat to friendly forces exists:
Flexibility. Harden vehicles to provide the degree of protection required while maintaining maximum flexibility in its use. Harden the cargo beds of vehicles with sandbags to protect troops.
Weight. All vehicle hardening adds weight to the vehicle. This requires commanders to reduce the amount of cargo carried.
Availability. Consider the availability of suitable materials and the time needed to complete the project.
Types of Roads. Roads traveled may determine the amount of hardening protection needed. For example, hardtop roads generally present fewer hazards from mines than dirt roads.
Vehicle hardening normally increases the amount of vehicle maintenance needed. If an excessive amount of weight is added, it may impact on the vehicle’s mobility and operational capabilities.
Kevlar blankets are effective and minimize extra weight. Unfortunately, the excess weight destroys the tires and the drive train quickly. Operating with hardened vehicles requires leaders to emphasize preventive maintenance checks and services.
VEHICLE WEAPON IMPROVEMENTS
6-29. Strengthening the vehicle weapons platforms is an additional countermeasure against insurgent attacks. When convoys come under attack, the key to defeating and destroying the attackers is well-aimed, overwhelming fire. By adding to an already existing weapons mix/platform for a particular vehicle, Soldiers have the capacity to exponentially enhance their own force protection while destroying attackers. Modifications used during the Vietnam War may be seen at . Figures 6-1 through 6-6 (pages 6-6 through 6-9) show examples used during Operation Iraqi Freedom.
6-30. Where the situation allows, military police and other forces may be able to establish a security corridor along a supply route. This requires extensive patrolling along the route to identify potential ambush and IED sites. It has an additional requirement to search structures along the route and confiscate any weapons found. Active patrolling is a visible presence that becomes a deterrent to enemy action. In Operation Iraqi Freedom this technique was found to provide a measure of security for convoys that was not obtained simply by arming the vehicles.
Figure 6-1. Vehicle Hardening (Notice Sandbags)
Figure 6-2. Vehicle Hardening and Pedestal Mount
Figure 6-3. Gunner Shields to the Rear and Front
Figure 6-4. Armor Plating Surrounding the Gun Platform
Figure 6-5. Armor Plating Surrounding the Gun Platform (Also on Bed of the Truck)
Figure 6-6. Gunner’s Shield and Camouflage for the Bed of the Truck
SECTION III CIVIL DISTURBANCE MEASURES
6-31. Active patrolling and interaction with the local populace can alert US, HN, and multinational forces to the possibility of civil disturbances. Patrols can detect changes in daily patterns that may indicate the possibility of violence, observe new people who are not residents of the area, or receive information about upcoming disturbances from those whom they have befriended.
6-32. To combat civil disturbances, leaders apply the minimum force necessary to help HN authorities restore law and order. Leaders and Soldiers remain aware that the media often covers civil disturbances. Even when not covered, these disturbances are opportunities to shape the information environment positively toward the US and the HN forces and government. Combatting these disturbances may involve the following:
Maintain the essential distribution, transportation, and communications systems.
Set up roadblocks.
Cordon off areas.
Make a show of force.
Disperse or contain crowds.
Release riot control agents only when directed to do so. (Only the President can authorize US forces to use riot control agents.)
Serve as security forces or reserves.
Initiate needed relief measures, such as distributing food or clothing, or establishing emergency shelters.
Employ nonlethal munitions and equipment.
6-33. Leaders plan and prepare their units for encountering civil disturbances during counterinsurgency operations. Plans include not only how Soldiers and units react, but also the use of tactical PSYOP teams. Leaders coordinate with local civil police to establish lines of authority and responsibility when dealing with civilian disturbances. US military leaders ensure operations involving US forces and HN police conform to US law and policy.
6-34. When planning and preparing for civil disturbance operations, commanders emphasize prevention rather than confrontation. Once a confrontation occurs, military forces also deal with noncombatants that have internationally recognized rights. These rights must be respected while maintaining public order.
6-35. Military forces display fair and impartial treatment and adhere to the principle of minimum force.
6-36. Civil police apprehend, process, and detain civil law violators. Military forces perform these functions only when necessity dictates and to the minimum extent required. Return these functions to civil authorities as soon as possible.
6-37. Proportional and appropriate responses to civil disturbances are based on an analysis of the threat the disturbance poses. Factors to be considered are–
Crowd size. How many people are actually present? Of those, how many are combative (armed or unarmed), and what type people comprise the crowd (grown men, women, juveniles, children, or a mix)?
Motivator. Is this an individual leading the crowd or the crowd feeding on itself?
Driving force. What is the reason for the gathering/riot?
Emotions and intentions. Listen to what the crowd is saying. You may be able to de-escalate the situation (treat the crowd like an individual person, but remain observant for changes).
Crowd evaluation. Will the size of the force affect the crowd?
Movement or motion. Where is the crowd trying to go?
Type of crowd clothing. Light or full due to heat or heavy coats to protect due to cold. Clothing affects the type of munitions used and the aiming point.
Area and environment of the situation. This affects the types of munitions used.
Availability of gravel or rocks. These can be thrown at the control force.
Escape routes for the crowd. There should be at least two avenues of escape that the crowd can use.
Avenues of withdrawal for the control force. There must also be at least two avenues of withdrawal for the formation.
6-38. Control force leaders consider the following characteristics when assessing situations involving crowds:
Tactics the crowd is using.
TYPES OF CROWDS
6-39. There are four types of crowds:
Casual crowd. Required elements of the casual crowd are space and people.
Sighting crowd. Includes casual crowd elements and an event. The event provides the group’s common bond.
Agitated crowd. Possesses the three elements of the sighting crowd plus the element of emotion.
Mob. Characterized by hostility and aggression. A mob is an agitated crowd involved in a physical activity.
6-40. To control the mob requires simultaneous actions. The primary goal is to reduce the emotional levels of the individuals within the mob. This action will de-escalate the aggressiveness and potential violence of the crowd. Physical force of some type may be necessary to quell the disturbance.
6-41. Leadership affects greatly the intensity and direction of crowd behavior. A skillful agitator can convert a group of resentful people into an angry mob and direct their aggression and anger toward the control group. The first person to start giving clear orders authoritatively is likely to be followed. Radical leaders can easily take charge, exploit the crowd’s mood, and direct it toward a convenient target.
6-42. It is important to note that the leader of the crowd or group does not necessarily fit into one category. The leader may be combative, vocal, or seemingly low-key and may change roles as needed. Properly identifying the leader of an angry or potentially violent group and skillfully removing the leader without causing additional violence is key to defusing a potentially dangerous situation.
6-43. Crowd tactics can be unplanned or planned, violent or not. The more organized and purposeful a crowd becomes, the more likely the tactics used will have been planned. Organized mobs will try to defeat the control force by employing several different types of tactics. These tactics include–
Using Molotov cocktails, rocks, slingshots, and smoke grenades.
Feinting and flanking actions.
6-44. Crowd behavior during a civil disturbance is essentially emotional and without reason. The feelings and the momentum generated have a tendency to cause the whole group to follow the example displayed by its worst members. Skillful agitators or subversive elements exploit these psychological factors during disorders. Regardless of the reason for violence, the results may consist of indiscriminate burning and looting, or open and violent attacks on officials, buildings, and innocent passersby. Rioters may set fire to buildings and vehicles to–
Block the advance of troops.
Create confusion and diversion.
Achieve goals of property destruction, looting, and sniping.
6-45. Mobs will often use various types of weapons against authorities. These include but are not limited to–
Use of perceived innocents or weak persons (such as the elderly, women and children) as human shields.
Thrown and blunt impact objects (such as rocks, bricks, and clubs).
Vehicles and other large movable objects.
Firearms, explosives, and other pyrotechnic devices.
TYPES OF RESISTERS
6-46. Individuals can be categorized according to what level of force they can use or what threat they present:
Complacent resisters. Complacent resisters are nonverbal. They look at you when you talk to them but do not reply in any way. They become limp when touched or forced to move their body. They can very quickly become violent and physically combative. Don’t underestimate them.
Vocal resisters. Vocal resisters offer a verbal reply and, when touched, highlight themselves in an effort to gain the attention of the media.
Combative resisters. Combative resisters pose the greatest danger to the control force. They are not passive once they are touched. Place the individual in a prone position, cuff them, and remove them from the area. (See Appendix I.)
TACTICAL PSYOP TEAMS
6-47. TPTs using loudspeakers can help control crowds and defuse potentially hostile situations. TPT members may be assigned as members of a planned quick reaction force or take part on the spur of the moment. In any case, proper planning, and a clear situational understanding are important to properly using TPTs.
6-48. The TPT leader assesses the situation by gathering as much information about the situation as quickly as possible. The clearer the leader’s situational understanding, the more effectively the plan can be developed, prepared for, and executed. Use the supported unit and intelligence assets to find out what friendly units are in the area and use them to gather specific information. These assets may be ODAs, or military police. The following are examples of the type of information that should be gathered during planning:
Location of the crowd.
Size of crowd.
Known potential key communicators.
Are weapons present? If so, what types?
Stated goals of the crowd.
6-49. During the initial stages of the disturbance the team monitors and attempts to identify facts and validate assumptions about the crowd. The TPT uses the following questions as a guide to gain as complete an understanding as possible of the disturbance:
Identify the key communicators or lead agitator.
What is his or her message? What is the general attitude or behavior of the group?
How many people are present in the group?
What are the demographics of the group (age and gender)?
What is the cultural composition of the group?
What language are they speaking?
How are they moving (mounted or dismounted)?
Are signs or banners present and, if so, what is the message?
Is there any media on site? If so, whom do they represent?
Are there any weapons present?
Who else is present at the location (police, elected public officials, nongovernmental organizations, civil affairs elements, or other organizations)? Do you have the officials’ cell phone numbers?
Is the crowd from that community or have they come from another locale? If from another locale, where, why and how?
How did the people know or hear about the gathering, rally, or demonstration?
What are their stated objectives or underlying grievances for the event?
6-50. When the commander directs the TPT to broadcast in this environment, the team adheres to the following guidelines:
Give simple directions that are clear and concise.
Always maintain composure. When constructing messages, avoid using the word «please» so the team does not display a passive appearance.
Do not issue ultimatums that are not approved by the commander.
If the commander does approve an ultimatum, ensure that the crowd has time to conform to its conditions.
Ensure the supported commander is prepared to act upon the ultimatum, should the crowd fail to respond favorably.
Use approved lines of persuasion when possible. Conduct impromptu broadcasting only as a last resort.
Always rehearse with the translator prior to going «live» unless the situation makes this absolutely impossible.
Ensure the gender and other social aspects of the translator are credible in the eyes of the crowd.
Always attempt to pick a broadcast position that communicates effectively with the crowd and does not compromise the security of the team.
Direct the broadcast toward the primary agitators.
Limit the volume of the broadcast so as not to be overbearing, and do not harass the crowd as this may only exacerbate the situation.
6-51. The team maintains communication with the supported commander or his or her representative on the ground throughout the situation. The team leader also ensures PSYOPrelevant, HUMINT, and priority intelligence requirement information are forwarded through appropriate channels.
ELEMENTS OF A CONTROL FORCE FORMATION
6-52. Four elements make up the basic crowd control formation:
Base element. This is the front line of the formation. This element is made up of two ranks. The first rank is shield holders while the second rank contains the nonlethal weapons.
Support element. The support element forms in a column formation behind the base element. It may be used to replace the base element members as needed or provide lateral or direct support. It performs extraction team operations.
Command element. A general configuration for the command element is the platoon leader, platoon sergeant, radio operator, and when required, the interpreter, riot control agent dispenser operator, and video recorder operator.
Lethal overwatch element. The lethal overwatch element is a team task formed from reserve security forces.
Figure 6-7. Common Control Force Formations and Commands.
CONTROL FORCE FORMATIONS
6-53. The most frequently used control force formations are the line, echelon, and wedge. Two formations used infrequently are the diamond and circle.
6-54. Use a line formation to move a crowd without dividing it or move it away from an object or place. (See Figure 6-8).
Figure 6-8. Platoon Line
6-55. The echelon is an offensive formation used to turn or divert groups in either open or builtup areas and to move crowds away from buildings, fences, and walls. (See Figures 6-9, 610, and 6-11.)
Figure 6-9. Platoon Echelon Left
Figure 6-10. Platoon echelon left with 2nd Squad in direct support.
Figure 6-11. Platoon Echelon Left with 2nd Squad in Lateral Support
6-56. The wedge is an offensive formation that is used to penetrate and split crowds into smaller groups. (See Figures 6-12 and 6-13.)
Figure 6-12. Platoon Wedge Figure
6-13. Platoon Wedge with Right Lateral Support
6-57. A diamond formation is used to enter a crowd. It is the formation of choice for extraction teams. As a defensive formation, the diamond is used when all-around security is required, such as in open areas. (See Figure 6-14.)
Figure 6-14. Platoon Diamond Formation
6-58. The circle formation is used for the same purposes as the diamond formation. The decision to use either the diamond or circle formation is based on the conformation of the crowd. (See Figure 6-15.)
Figure 6-15. Platoon Circle
VEHICLES AND FORMATIONS
6-59. Vehicles may be employed with troops in control force formation especially when a large rioting crowd is on hand. When using vehicles, cover the windshield with sturdy, close mesh fencing and the standard safety glass. Create a buffer space between the two surfaces.
6-60. Shields and or mobile barriers may be built by mounting a wooden or metal frame strung with barbed wire across the front of a vehicle.
6-61. Members of the formation should walk as near to the front corners of each vehicle as possible to keep rioters from attacking the sides and rear of the vehicles. 6-62. When up-armored HMMWVs or other armored vehicles are used in crowd control formations, leaders ensure that they are able to see and control the formation.
6-63. Leaders choose their options based on an assessment of the crowd. Leaders select the combination of control techniques and force options they believe will influence the particular situation most effectively (based on METT-TC). Leaders choose the response they expect to reduce the intensity of the situation. Options to consider for crowd control are–
Monitor the crowd to gather intelligence and observe to determine whether leaders have emerged, volatility has increased, and movement.
Block the crowd’s advance upon a facility or area. Disperse the crowd in order to prevent injury or prevent the destruction of property.
Contain the crowd to limit it to the area it is occupying. This prevents it from spreading to surrounding areas and communities.
CONTAINMENT VERSUS DISPERSAL
6-64. Dispersal may result in a crowd breaking into multiple groups, causing greater problems and continued threat to the control forces. A contained crowd has a limited duration; their numbers are likely to diminish as individual needs take precedence over those of the crowd. 6-65. Issue a proclamation to assist with dispersing a crowd. (See examples at Figure 6-16, page 6-20.) A proclamation officially establishes the illegal nature of a crowd’s actions, and it puts the populace on official notice regarding the status of their actions. If a proclamation is issued, ensure action is taken to enforce it. Nonaction will be seen as a sign of weakness. When issuing a proclamation, remember the following:
Intent cannot exceed response capability.
Do not disclose the type of force/munitions to be used.
CROWD CONTROL TECHNIQUES
6-66. Use the following techniques to control crowds:
Ensure that ROE, levels of force and uses, and the commander’s intent (to include non lethal weapon and lethal options, if necessary) are clearly understood by all.
Determine in advance the recent psychological characteristics of demonstrations and mobs.
Identify local HN, community, and tribal officials in advance. Know their office and cell phone numbers.
Establish command relationships and the authority to fire nonlethal weapons munitions.
Make an extraction plan and have flexible withdrawal drills.
Always maintain a lethal overwatch of a control force. When marksmen are deployed, keep them covered and out-of-sight. Designated marksman teams build confidence in the members of the control force.
Always maintain a reserve force to reinforce the control force. Hold reserves out-ofsight.
Know who the media representatives are and where they are located. Ask them in advance the theme of any story and information they are developing.
Be reasonable and balanced. However, a mob’s perceived lack of risk encourages rioters.
Move the crowd, but don’t smash them. They will fight if smashed.
Maximize distance and barriers between crowd and control formations. Use nonlethal weapons munitions to create a standoff distance.
If the use of force level escalates to a deadly force, adjusted aim points (head shots) with nonlethal weapons munitions can produce lethal effects.
Create nonlethal weapons range cards for static positions.
Consider environmental conditions and their effect on the performance of less-thanlethal munitions.
Keep in mind the potential for a lethal outcome is possible in all types of missions.
APPLICATION OF RULES OF ENGAGEMENT
6-67. The force applied will continually change dependent on the threat levels and ROE. 6-68. As the threat increases or decreases, the level of force increases or decreases based on ROE.
6-69. The M9 pistol is the weapon of choice for extraction/apprehension teams.
6-70. Use of the M203 grenade launcher and 12-gauge shotgun are recommended with nonlethal weapons munitions capability, especially for overwatch of frontline personnel.
6-71. Add nonstandard weapons, such as shotguns, for a greater nonlethal weapons capability. Example: the shotgunner is used to protect the M203 gunner as he reloads.
6-72. Balance weapons mix and munitions according to METT-TC.
6-73. Soldiers in the front line of the formation should be armed with their standard weapon carried across the back, butt up and muzzle down. The weapon is cleared and the magazine is in the appropriate ammo pouch.
Figure 6-16. Examples of Proclamations
SECTION IV NONLETHAL EQUIPMENT AND WEAPONS
6-74. There are advantages and disadvantages in using nonlethal weapons.
Nonlethal weapons can be used alone, when they are backed up with the ability to use lethal force, or in conjunction with lethal force. Leaders apply ROE to determine when and where nonlethal weapons may be used. ROE should not jeopardize the right of Soldiers to protect life where necessary with lethal force.
Employ nonlethal weapons consistent with extant treaties, conventions, and international and national laws. Their use should be morally and ethically justifiable.
Use nonlethal weapons proportionately (the least destructive way to defeat insurgents) and discriminately (protect noncombatants from direct intentional attack).
In planning the employment of nonlethal weapons, fully rehearse the operational response to all possible reactions.
Anticipate, coordinate, and prepare for responses from the civil, public affairs, medical, and legal authorities as a consequence of unintended results and side effects caused by the use of nonlethal weapons.
Nonlethal weapons should be fully integrated with lethal weapons in order to provide a graduated response to a situation based upon the perception of the threat and use of minimum force.
Nonlethal weapons should not be deployed without considering countermeasures to possible crowd reactions to their use.
Nonlethal weapons should not be deployed without political-military consideration for instructions that may be given.
Nonlethal weapons should be employed so as to minimize friendly casualties troops.
Manual de campo del ejército estadounidense sobre operaciones contrainsurgencia