Vigente ley de reforma de servicios de inteligencia en EE.UU.

WASHINGTON (AP) — President Bush on Friday signed into law the largest overhaul of U.S. intelligence gathering in 50 years, hoping to improve the spy network that failed to prevent the September 11 attacks.
«Our vast intelligence enterprise will become more unified, coordinated and effective,» Bush said. «It will enable us to better do our duty, which is to protect the American people.»
The 563-page bill, which endured a thorny path to congressional passage, also aims to tighten borders and aviation security. It creates a federal counterterrorism center and a new intelligence director, but Bush did not announce a candidate for that post at Friday’s ceremony.
«A key lesson of September 11 is that America’s intelligence agencies must work together as a single, unified enterprise,» the president said.
Bush was joined at the signing ceremony by CIA Director Porter Goss, FBI Director Robert Mueller, members of Congress, leaders of the September 11 commission and relatives of people killed on September 11, 2001.
«Those charged with protecting America must have the best possible intelligence information and that information must be closely integrated to form the best possible picture of the threats to our country,» the president said.
The new position of national intelligence director was one of the bill’s most controversial aspects. Although the legislation gives the new director strong budget authority, its language is complex enough that there could be continued debate over the exact extent of the director’s power.
But Bush attempted to leave no doubt about the sweeping nature of the intelligence director’s budgetary authority.
«It will be the DNI’s responsibility to determine the annual budgets of all national intelligence agencies and offices and to direct how these funds are spent,» he said.
Some names that have been mentioned for the post include CIA Director Porter Goss; Lt. Gen. Michael Hayden, the head of the National Security Agency; Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage; and White House homeland security adviser Fran Townsend.
The new structure was designed to help the nation’s 15 intelligence agencies work together to protect the country from attacks like the ones that killed nearly 3,000 people in New York and Pennsylvania and at the Pentagon.
The September 11 Commission, in its July report, said disharmony among the intelligence agencies contributed to the inability of government officials to prevent the attacks. The government failed to recognize the danger posed by al-Qaida and was ill-prepared to respond to the terrorist threat, the report concluded.
Commission members and families of attack victims lobbied persistently for the legislation through the summer political conventions, the election and a postelection lame duck session of Congress. The bill was threatened by disagreements between the White House and key House Republicans about immigration issues and how the new national intelligence director would work with the nation’s military.
Bush was criticized for not engaging aggressively enough with members of his own party to break the impasse. Pundits questioned what that meant for the president’s ability to gain approval from a Republican-controlled Congress for his ambitious second-term agenda. But in the final days, he and Vice President Dick Cheney pushed hard for the legislation, and both the House and Senate passed it overwhelmingly.
Just as Bush changed his mind on supporting the creation of a Homeland Security Department and creation of the independent September 11 Commission, it took him a while to endorse the commission’s strong recommendation that any new director of national intelligence have full budget-making control, necessary to wield true power in Washington. Bush at first rejected that idea but later supported it.
The new law includes a host of anti-terrorism provisions, such as letting officials wiretap «lone wolf» terrorists and improving airline baggage screening procedures. It increases the number of full-time border patrol agents by 2,000 per year for five years and imposes new federal standards on information that driver’s licenses must contain.
The measure is the biggest change to U.S. intelligence gathering and analysis since the creation of the CIA after World War II to deal with the newly emerging Cold War.
WASHINGTON (CNN) — Here are some of the key provisions of the intelligence reform bill that finally made it through Congress Tuesday:
Creates the new position of director of national intelligence, separate from the CIA director, to direct and manage the activities of agencies across the intelligence community and serve as the principal adviser to the president for intelligence concerns. The director will also have authority over much of the intelligence budget.
Changes the structure of the National Counterterrorism Center, which was established last August by executive order from President Bush. Previously, the center was part of the CIA, with its director appointed by the CIA director. Now, the president will appoint the center’s director, with confirmation by the Senate .The center is designed to analyze and interpret intelligence information related to terrorism and to conduct strategic planning for counterterrorism activities.
Requires intelligence, law enforcement and homeland security agencies to share information, mandating links between federal, state and local agencies and the private sector, as well as creating common standards for issuing security clearances and classifying information.
Requires the Department of Homeland Security to test a new advanced screening system for airline passengers; upgrade baggage screening procedures and security in baggage areas; upgrade air cargo security; improve training for federal air marshals; upgrade explosive detection systems; and develop other advanced detection equipment at airports.
Requires DHS to explore new technologies to deal with possible transportation threats, such as an air defense system to protect planes from ground-launched missiles; blast-resistant cargo and baggage containers; and biometric identification for airport access.
Establishes mandatory penalties for possession or trafficking in missile systems designed to destroy aircraft.
Strengthens visa application requirements and establishes a visa and passport security program within the State Department.
Requires DHS to develop a system to use biometric data to track people entering and exiting the United States.
Adds 10,000 full-time border patrol agents and 4,000 new investigators for Immigration and Customs Enforcement over the next five years, as well as increasing by 40,000 the number of detention beds available to house aliens awaiting deportation.
Requires federal agencies to establish minimum standards for issuing driver’s licenses and birth certificates, and requires DHS to establish standards for ID used to board airplanes. However, states will not be prevented from issuing driver’s licenses to illegal immigrants.
Beefs up efforts to go after terrorist financing, including more funding to combat money laundering and financial crimes and more authority to track cross-border financial transactions.
Creates an independent Privacy and Civil Liberties Board, made up of private citizens appointed by the president, to examine executive branch policies to make sure they don’t violate privacy and civil liberties.
Allows grand jury information, which is normally secret, to be shared with government officials in order to prevent or respond to terrorist threats.
Creates a National Counteproliferation Center to address threats from international weapons proliferation.
Creates an Intelligence Directorate within the FBI to restructure the agency’s intelligence capability. Intelligence personnel will also be placed in FBI field offices.
Requires the FBI to update its information technology systems and report its progress to Congress.
Requires DHS to devise a plan to patrol the U.S-Mexican border with remotely piloted aircraft and to test advanced technology — including sensors, video and unmanned aircraft — to secure the U.S.-Canadian border.
Makes smuggling aliens into the United States a federal crime and establishes and Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center.
Criminalizes possessing or trafficking in weapons of mass destruction.
People who perpetrate terrorist hoaxes can be prosecuted and forced to make reimbursement for response costs.
Non-citizens who receive military-type training from designated terrorist organizations can be deported.
Creates watch lists for passengers on ships.
Upgrades security features of pilot licenses.
Requires the General Accountability Office to study potential weaknesses in the U.S. asylum system.

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