Impacto del juego de azar en las mujeres

A Brief History of the Involvement of Women in Gambling
Women not dice players
The Invention of Cards
Women Catching the Gambling Wave of the 17th Century
American Indians and the Wild West
British Street Betting
Las Vegas in the 1950s and 1960s – Slot Machines
The Impact of Problem Gambling Upon Women
The Indirect Impact – Wives of problem gamblers
Loss of Intimacy and Trust
Loss of Self-Esteem
Financial Problems
Victims of Crime
The Direct Impact – Women as problem gamblers
Gaming Machines
Gaming Machine Problem Gamblers
A Woman’s Way into Problem Gambling
Why Women Problem Gamblers Tend to Suffer More than Men
The Double-Standard Applied to Women Problem Gamblers
How Shame Often Inhibits Women from Seeking Help
Special Problems for the Problem Gambling Mother
Husband’s Feeling of Betrayal
Sexual Dysfunction in Women Problem Gamblers
Nevada Women Problem Gamblers – Prostitution, Suicide Attempts
The Rapid Development of Problem Gambling in the Woman Problem Gambler
Women Under Stress Vulnerable to Problem Gambling
Women Problem Gamblers as Criminals
I have not seen a book on the history of gambling by women and the following comments are only piecemeal observations I have gleaned from a number of references.
Women not dice players
As far as I can ascertain, prior to the invention of cards, there is no account of women gambling in any serious manner.
Mario Puzo, author of «The Godfather» has an interesting theory:
«It occurs to me now that Greek and Roman women did not gamble because in their time only dice existed. English and French women [in the 1700s] gambled because by that time cards had been invented. So in Vegas today you see very few women crap shooters.» [1]
Though the gambling expert Scarney writes[2]:
«The fair sex has its quota of craps degenerates, too. The most notable one I Met was a 72-year old widow known to Nevada casino operators as «Ma».
About a year later «after having lost more than two million she disappeared from the Nevada casinos. The owner later told me that she was the fastest woman Craps degenerate he had ever seen and that as a bigtime bettor she held her own with the outstanding male high rollers.»
The Invention of Cards
Though traditionally women did not play with dice, the invention of cards offered them a form of gambling that appealed to them. Giralamo Cardano wrote in 1564: «There is a difference from play with dice, because the latter is open, whereas play with cards takes place from ambush, because they are concealed».[3]
Cards are less physical than dice and are more intellectual: «Where games are valued as a means of bringing people together for the enjoyment of a common social activity, cards may be treasured for the breadth of their appeal and the depth of their sociability».[4]
Presumably other social and economic factors were at work including the increasing status of women in western society and the settling of property on women through trusts.
Women Catching the Gambling Wave of the 17th Century
Gambling swept 17th century Europe and English women and French women were caught up in the action.
«One feature of high life in the Restoration was the passion with which women abandoned themselves to gambling. Social commentators were more concerned with the deleterious effect of sleepless nights at the gambling tables on women’s looks.»[5]
«Never before or after the period 1660 to 1745 has England been engulfed by such a fashionable mania. At all hours of the day and night dice were rattled and cards shuffled by everyone from footmen and scullery maids to courtiers and ladies of honour.»[6]
When asked about her interest in books, the Duchess of Marlborough wailed: «Books! Prithee don’t talk to me about books! The only books I know are men and cards.»[7]
Another contemporary wrote: «When French women gamble, it has been remarked, the longing to play seizes them like a mania.»[8]
American Indians and the Wild West
The Huron Indian squaws gambled. «The squaws were equally avid for gambling, but could play only when not observed by their husbands, and their losses were small since they rarely owned anything of value.»[9]
Not only did the squaws gamble, they themselves were sometimes the stakes:
«Squaws … were often the last wager of luckless and desperate husbands. Sometimes, they charged violently into the game, chasing the men away when they had lost everything but their breechcloths.»[10]
In the Wild West, women were sometimes associated with gambling as dealers, gamblers or prostitutes: Poker Alice, Schemer Kitty, Buckskin Alice, Madame Moustache, Minnie the Gambler and Martha Jane Canary (Calamity Jane).[11]
In the 1800s, roulette became a popular game with women though roulette wheels were only to be found in a few locations in Europe.[12]
The grandmother in Dostoeyvsky’s book, «The Gambler» was in real life Countess Sophie Kisseleff who gambled at roulette for days on end during her annual trips to Homburg and who is reputed to have lost 500,000 florins on each occasion. The municipality gratefully named the street to today’s casino after her.
Today, roulette is a popular game with women. Scarney attributes its attractiveness to women as due to the «beauty and colour, glitter and dance of the wheel».[13]
British Street Betting
A wave of gambling activity swept over Britain in the last quarter of the 1800s when legal loopholes and lack of law enforcement led to a proliferation of street betting with off-course bookmakers agents taking bets on horse races in betting shops and going from door to door. Many women suffered gambling problems as a result of this activity. The police court missionary at Newcastle-on-Tyne wrote:
«I have had considerable experience of evangelistic work in slum parishes in Newcastle, and it is my opinion, from careful observation, that there is a very great amount of betting and gambling among women. I have known women sell the shoes and stockings from off their children’s feet to get coppers to put on their favourite horse.»[14]
And the following evidence was given at the 1902 House of Lords Select Commission on Betting and Gambling:
«Q. Do these bookmakers solicit the women or whoever opens the door to them?
A. Yes; they go from house to house, and they get the women, in the absence of their husbands, to bet, and I have known in some cases where the money has been so short that the mother has gone and taken some things out of the house and pawned them in order to get money to bet with.»[15]
Las Vegas in the 1950s and 1960s – Slot Machines
In the early days of Las Vegas women were employed as shills, decoy players. The attractive shills were usually available to the substantial players.[16] Women obtained dealer’s jobs in return for sexual favours.[17]
Las Vegas used gaming machines to keep wives and girlfriends out of male gamblers’ hair while they played table games.[18]
Scarne, writing in the 1960s, acknowledged the propensity for gaming machines to generate problem gambling women:
«If you think that playing the slots is nothing more than a pleasant pastime, watch a few slot addicts at work. I can name a dozen woman players who have lost as much as $20,000 a year to the machines. … Many women addicts wear a glove on the right hand to avoid getting calluses.»[19]
Writing in 1972, Wagner observed that at the US Gamblers Anonymous the ratio of male to female attendees was 50:1 though Wagner indicated that men were more willing to attend than women.[20]
The recent expansion of the commercial gaming industry in Victoria has had two major and adverse effects upon the well-being of women, one indirect, the other direct.
The Indirect Impact – Wives of problem gamblers
Indirectly, the increased gambling activity is impacting upon women by generating additional male gamblers; the woman suffers where the husband becomes a problem gambler.
Loss of Intimacy and Trust
Possibly the hardest thing for the wife of the problem gambler is the loss of intimacy and trust. As Moody observes: «… people do not enter marriage relying on their defences. They enter it to become involved with each other and that makes them vulnerable, each before the other.»[21] Gambling takes over the husband’s life and the wife and children must fit in any gaps that are left free. The gambler’s wife and children signify in his life as means to serve his gambling or as hindrances to it.[22] The problem gambler preys «mercilessly on the very people with the weakest defences against their pressure, cunning and deceit»[23].
The sexual relationship is very likely to be affected; as one counsellor observes: «I never met a [problem] gambler who had a healthy relationship or a healthy sex drive.»[24]
Loss of Self-Esteem
When the wife first learns of the husband’s problem gambling, the problem is outside her; later it is inside her.[25] The gambler will often succeed in making the wife feel that she is a poor money manager and the financial problems are her fault.[26] Often the wife will take her frustrations out on the children and then feel remorse at the children’s suffering. When the gambler experiences a financial crisis, often the wife will collude in arranging the bail out and suffer embarrassment and shame over her role.[27] She will feel bitter and helpless:
«…you cannot change your gambler, you cannot even control your efforts to do so. By the time things have reached an advanced stage, you will have become so frustrated by the pathetic excuses, lies, deceptions, betrayals and broken promises that even if you do try to reason with him you will be overcome by a desire to punish him, to make him suffer. Bitterness, contempt, resentment and hatred master you, and all your attempts end in screaming failure. Then your passion dies, your resolve collapses and you sink once again in shame into your usual condition of humiliating helplessness.»[28]
Financial Problems
On top of the breakdown in relationships within the family the wife has also to face up to trying to maintain the household with little or no money. As a member of Gamblers Anonymous (USA) observed when contrasting alcoholism and problem gambling: «Financial ruin sets in motion a staggering set of special problems apart from the problem of gambling sickness itself.»[29]
«It is the wives who must contend with the bill collectors, the insistent dunning notices, depleted bank accounts. It is they who face the apprehension and humiliation of disconnected lights, gas, water, a dead phone, the unpaid mortgage instalment … It is they who somehow must magically keep the marriage and household going without strength and support, they who must maintain the facade of a civilized life despite the chaos caused by their husband’s gambling.»[30]
Victims of Crime
Women are often the victims of gambling related crime at the hands of those with whom they have relationships. These are some cases reported in Victorian newspapers of the last few years.
24 January 1996 – husband assaults wife and three-month-old child
Melbourne Magistrates Court – Mr Muling sentenced Mr X (45) to five months (effective) imprisonment for recklessly causing injury and recklessly causing serious injury. Mr X, a problem gambler, admitted to punching his de facto wife whilst demanding money from her to spend at the casino and of accidentally striking his three-month-old child causing it to suffer a brain haemorrhage.[31]
27 January 1996 – husband murders wife and three children
Mr X, a Queensland resident, was reported to have committed suicide after killing his wife, her parents and their three children. Mr X was described by his father as a compulsive gambler and in the weeks leading up to the murders he «ran up huge bills on his credit card and gambled heavily at Jupiters Casino during a 10 day stay at the hotel».[32]
8 March 1996 – man murders elderly woman he befriended
Melbourne Coroner’s Court – Coroner Mr Iain West found that Mr X (53) tried to strangle Ms Y (78) causing her to have a fatal heart attack. The Coroner further found that X committed suicide and burnt down a house five weeks later. X, a poker machine addict, had killed Y three weeks after Y made a will leaving him her house and money.[33]
5 July 1996 – man defrauds eight young female Asian tourists
Magistrates Court of Victoria – Mr X (34) pleaded guilty to obtaining property by deception totalling $75,000 from eight young female Asian tourists, in less than three months to feed his gambling habit. Mr Barrow sentenced X to three years imprisonment with a two year non-parole period.[34]
20 August 1997 – attorney embezzles from elderly woman
Magistrate Paul Grant in the Broadmeadows Magistrates Court sentenced Mr X (47) to six months’ jail. Mr X had pleaded guilty to 42 theft charges. As attorney for a 94 year-old woman in a nursing home, Mr X had withdrawn $19,539 between January 1994 to July 1996. The court was told that Mr X was a lonely man who lived with his mother. He had sought solace in playing poker machines and all the money was spent on poker machines.[35]
The Direct Impact – Women as problem gamblers
Women suffer directly where they themselves become problem gamblers.
Gaming Machines
The introduction of gaming machines, a form of gambling appealing to women, has had a more direct effect. The machines are reaping a rich harvest of women problem gamblers in Victoria. The effect of gaming machines on women as a sector of the community was never the subject of any discussion or recommendation in the Schilling Report[36]which formed the basis for raising the ceiling for Victorian gaming machines from 15,000 to 45,000. No women’s organisation is listed as having made a submission to the report.
Gaming Machine Problem Gamblers
Problem gambling by women is not a novel phenomenon but has been observed over hundreds of years.
Today, in Las Vegas, women at Gamblers Anonymous meetings often outnumber the men. Over 95% of the women treated at Charter Hospital in Las Vegas play only video poker.[37]
In Victoria, Gamblers Anonymous reports that now 7 out of 10 callers are women, 90% of whom are addicted to electronic gaming machines.[38] G-Line, the Victorian Government problem gambling counselling service reports that 67% of callers say they are addicted to gaming machines and 86% of these are women.[39]
Tom Romney, a veteran member of Gamblers Anonymous and highly respected independent problem gambling counsellor writes:[40]
«… one of the certain results of this gambling smorgasbord is that we, as a society, are going to breed more and more compulsive gamblers.
This is an undisputed fact which is backed up by the knowledge that female compulsive gamblers are no longer a curiosity in self-help groups. They now make up 20% of the members and, if the rate is maintained, this percentage will swell to 50% within 3 to 4 years – a frightening statistic when one considers the damage that will be wreaked in the process. What was once predominantly a male only activity has, in recent times, rapidly become acceptable to both genders.»
A Woman’s Way into Problem Gambling
Rev Moody believes that a woman’s way into problem gambling is the same as that followed by male gamblers.[41] There is, though, one difference in the motivation for gambling between women and men. Women want to be liked, accepted, wanted, loved and protected whereas men want to fight, to conquer, to overcome.[42] This, is reflected in a 1995 advertisement advertising poker machine venues: «All the girls love to play with George/All the boys love to win with George».
Why Women Problem Gamblers Tend to Suffer More than Men
Although women follow the same path into problem gambling as men, women problem gamblers, particularly wives and mothers, tend to suffer more than their male counterparts. Financially dependent wives, for example, have little money to spend on gambling. As one witness to the 1902 House of Lords Commission pointed out:
I think it [street betting] is more serious, because, generally speaking, the working man only bets with his pocket-money, as he calls it in the working districts, and I think the woman very often risks the money the husband gives her for house-hold purposes; I think she is much more reckless and excitable under loss than a man, and therefore much more likely to go to the full extreme of all the money she has in her pocket.[43]
Rev Moody makes the same observation today. He also points out that the domestic crisis that follows discovery is almost always «more severe, more painful and more critical.»[44]
The Double-Standard Applied to Women Problem Gamblers
There is a double standard applied to the woman problem gambler. Whereas a male problem gambler may be seen as a lovable rogue at best or irresponsible at worst,[45] people see a woman problem gambler as dissolute, immoral and indecent, even worse than a woman alcoholic.[46]
Dr Robert Custer, in charge of a neuro-psychiatric hospital in Brecksville, Ohio, noted that the difference in male and female attitudes was evident «in a second». «No matter how badly depressed the male compulsive gambler may be, no matter how much havoc he has wrought on himself and his family and with creditors and the law, he still, somehow, managers to retain a ‘hang-tough’ combative, challenging attitude, almost a cockiness, as if he feels he is justified in what he has done, that there really is nothing wrong with him, that the problem is everybody else’s fault». By contrast, the woman who comes in for treatment is «subdued, withdrawn, frightened, abject and almost cringing in her demeanour». She sees herself as an object of loathing and contempt.»[47]
How Shame Often Inhibits Women from Seeking Help
This shame often inhibits women problem gamblers from seeking help. They are also inhibited from seeking help for fear of being discovered.[48] It may be that in Australia today we have a less paternalistic, more open-minded society in which women problem gamblers may feel less shame and be more willing to seek help.
Special Problems for the Problem Gambling Mother
A problem gambler who is a mother suffers because she is closer to her children. She can see, more clearly than a problem gambling father, the effect that her problem gambling is having upon them when they go without adequate food, clothing and other essentials.[49] The mother also feels guilt if the child is forced to be an accomplice for her and lie to its father to conceal her gambling.[50]
Husband’s Feeling of Betrayal
A husband feels especially betrayed when his wife is discovered as a problem gambler. In the past it is clear that this led to domestic violence: Q. Have you known of bad cases of women betting with their husbands’ money for example?
A. Yes.
Q. Do you know many cases of that kind?
A. Very many. In some cases the husband is not himself given to betting, but on account of the visit of the bookmaker to the house during the husband’s absence at work the wife has given way to betting; and then by-and-bye the husband has got to know that this has taken place, and I need not tell you the result: it is extremely sad.[51]
Sexual Dysfunction in Women Problem Gamblers
According to one Australian problem gambling counsellor, between 75% and 90% of problem gamblers are sexually dysfunctional. In the case of women problem gamblers, 80% of those affected are unable to perform and the other 20% are sexually addicted.[52]
Nevada Women Problem Gamblers – Prostitution, Suicide Attempts
In Nevada, many women who become problem gamblers prostitute themselves or sell personal jewellery to gain cash for gambling. Many attempt suicide. Of a sample of women Gamblers Anonymous attendees in Nevada, 27% had considered prostitution and 10% had done so; 87% had spent family savings, 76% had obtained advances of credit cards and 60% had sold personal jewellery. Sixty-seven percent had contemplated suicide and 23% had actually attempted it.[53] In Victoria, Victorian Police claim some housewives in at least one western suburbs gaming venue have turned to occasional prostitution to offset gambling losses.[54]
The Rapid Development of Problem Gambling in the Woman Problem Gambler
The speed at which women are becoming addicted to gaming machines is a matter of concern.
Traditionally, in Victoria, problem gamblers emerged as men in their thirties. Although most started gambling as children, the preferred gambling activity, betting on races, was a fairly low-action form of gambling. Particularly before off-course betting, the time periods between bets and race-days meant that it took longer for the gambler to develop dependence and losses were more gradual. As the Rev Gordon Moody wrote of one UK gambler: «… this individual’s progress into problem gambling was slow because opportunities for ‘action’ gambling in those days were relatively few and far between.»[55]
Today, the situation has changed with the introduction of highly accessible, fast action gaming in the form of gaming machines and table games. The experience in Queensland with women gamblers for example is summed up as follows:
«They [female gamblers] all tended to have new problems. They were only problems that had begun since the machines came in, and this surprised us, that problems can develop so quickly. Our experience with men suggested that it took 10 to 15 years for a really heavy problem to develop»[56]
A Las Vegas clinician says about poker machines:
‘I compare the video machines to crack cocaine. They are a distilled essence of gambling. If you are a pathological sports bettor, racetrack bettor, card player, it usually takes you a decade or two to hit bottom. If you’re a [pathological] video-poker player, by our research it takes a little less than three years to find bottom.’ [57]
Women Under Stress Vulnerable to Problem Gambling
Another issue of concern is that it seems that it is vulnerable women, women under stress, who are developing into problem gamblers. One woman the author spoke to had lost a loved one, another had suffered the failure of a family business. A caller on a talk-back program had a child with a learning disability.[58] The National Australia Bank teller who stabbed an elderly client in a bid to cover her gambling caused thefts, was suffering from an undiagnosed depressive order arising out of violence and sexual abuse as a child.[59] The mother who stole $130,000 of her quadriplegic son’s compensation payout, told police she started gambling after her husband died of cancer.[60] Another woman lost control of her gambling after her husband’s death from cancer.[61] Ms Tania Coppel, a gambling counsellor with Sunshine Community Health Services, said she was seeing an alarming number of women who had developed gambling problems while suffering from post-natal depression.[62]
Women Problem Gamblers as Criminals
Problem gambling has led a number of women into crime in recent years. The following cases were reported in Victorian newspapers between August 1995 and May 1997.
1 August 1995 – attempted murder (stabbing), aggravated burglary, embezzlement
Supreme Court of Victoria – Mr Justice Hampel sentenced Mrs X to four-and-a-half years imprisonment (with a minimum non-parole period of two years) on her plea of guilty to attempted murder, burglary, aggravated burglary and six other charges involving deception and theft. Mrs X was the wife of a policeman and mother of three children employed as a teller with the National Bank of Australia. To feed her poker machine habit Mrs X stole $6,100 from the account of Mrs Y (92). In an attempt to cover her crime she went to Mrs Y’s home and stabbed her 18 times with a 27cm butcher’s boning knife.[63]
15 April 1996 – threatening and demanding money
County Court of Victoria – Judge Neesham sentenced Ms X (45) to two years imprisonment (18 months suspended) for threatening and demanding money from her 81 year old neighbour. The court was told that Ms X was a compulsive gambler.[64] On appeal to the Supreme Court of Victoria, Mr Justice Tagell refused to overturn the sentence on the basis that the gravity of the crime may outweigh any mercy a person addicted to gambling may expect from the courts.[65]
8 June 1996 – stealing from son’s compensation pay out ($130,000)
Magistrates Court – Mrs X admitted that her addiction to poker machines led to her stealing $130,000 from her son’s accident compensation payout. She was bailed to appear in the County Court for plea and sentencing.[66] On 7 October 1996, Judge Leslie Ross sentenced Mrs X to ten months imprisonment, six months to be suspended for two years. Judge Ross criticised gambling advertising stating: «The advertising of the pleasurable benefits associated with gambling and the prospects of return on these machines is illusory and misleading, and I suspect has an impact on the weak-willed and gullible.»[67]
30 September 1996 – embezzlement ($78,000)
Prahran Magistrates Court – Mr Peter Couzens, Magistrate, sentenced Ms X (23) to 14 months imprisonment. Ms X as a Monash University employee had stolen overseas students fees totalling almost $78,000 to support her casino gambling habit. Mr Couzens said there was a «rapidly growing trend of people offending in a very serious way to enable them to gamble at the casino and other places.» He said that in the past week four people who had never previously committed crimes had faced court on casino gambling related charges.[68]
October 1996 – embezzlement ($1.3M)
County Court – Judge Stuart Campbell sentenced Ms X (27), a bank manager, to 3 years jail with a minimum of nine months for stealing $1.3 million to feed her gambling habit. Judge Campbell attacked gambling advertising and also recommended gambling addiction be addressed in the current review of the Sentencing Act 1991 which already addressed drug and alcohol problems.[69]
October 1996 – stealing ($2,650)
Magistrates Court – Mr Henry Alsop, Magistrate, sentenced a former nurse to three month’s imprisonment, suspended for twelve months. The nurse had stolen an elderly patient’s automatic teller machine card and PIN number and withdrawn $2,650 which she had used for gambling.[70]
12 November 1996 – embezzlement ($11,087)
Melbourne Magistrates Court – Mr Patrick Street, Magistrate, placed Ms X (49) on a 12-month community based order including psychological assessment and treatment for problems associated with gambling. Ms X, an American Express employee, pleaded guilty to obtaining $11,087 by deception in August through 15 illegitimate transactions involving 13 company clients. Defence counsel advised the court that Ms X had developed an uncontrollable pathological gambling addiction over the past four years.[71]
14 November 1996 – embezzlement ($90,000)
County Court – Judge Campton remanded Mrs X in custody to await sentencing after she had pleaded guilty to stealing more than $90,000 from her employer which she had lost at the Crown Casino. Mrs X had stolen two watches worth $4992 and later admitted to stealing the daily takings. She sold her family’s Singapore flat to repay the moneys and returned voluntarily from Singapore. Expert evidence was given that Ms X suffered a pathological gambling disorder precipitated by her husband’s death.[72]
16 April 1997 – embezzlement ($775,085)
Judge Curtain sentenced Ms X (27) to 34 months imprisonment with a minimum of twelve months after she pleaded guilty to four counts of theft totalling $775,085. Ms X was a customer service manager with Westpac Bank who stole from her parents’ account and corporate accounts. She lost over $500,000 at Crown Casino.[73]
28 May 1997 – cashing worthless cheques
Magistrate Dan Muling convicted Ms X (38), a single mother, to 150 hours of community work to be served over six months. Ms X had lost about $20,000, her live savings at the casino, she sold her furniture and car, borrowed from friends and she stole gambling chips, cashed worthless cheques at supermarkets and breached an exclusion order.[74]
1 Mario Puzo «Inside Las Vegas» Grosset & Dunlap 1976 at page 85
2 Scarney at page 263
3 David Parlett «The Oxford Guide to Card Games» Oxford University Press 1990 at page 15
4 Parlett at page 14
5 Ludovici at page 69
6 Russell T Barnhart «Gamblers of Yesteryear» GBC Press 1983 at page 25
7 Russell T Barnhart «Gamblers of Yesteryear» GBC Press 1983 at page 25
8 Ludovici at page 97
9 Chafetz «Play the Devil – A History of Gambling in the United States from 1492 to 1950» Clarkson N Potter Inc 1960 at page 11
10 Chafetz at page 11
11 Ludovici at page 182
12 For an interesting account of the 19th century European casinos of Spa, Baden Baden, Homburg and Monte Carlo read Russell T Barnhart «Gamblers of Yesteryear» GBC Press 1983
13 Scarne at page 398
14 J M Hogge M A «Gambling Among Women» from «Betting and Gambling – A National Evil» Macmillan & Co Ltd 1906 at page at pages 39 and 40
15 Evidence of Mr Knight, General Secretary of the Boilermakers’ Society and a magistrate of Newcastle – Hogge at page 39
16 Puzo at page 193
17 Puzo at page 142
18 Puzo at page 153
19 Scarne at page 449
20 Wagner at page 338
21 Rev Gordon Moody «Quit Compulsive Gambling» Thorsons 1990 at page 105
22 Moody at page 26
23 Moody at page 55
24 Herald Sun Newspaper 6 June 1996 – «Gamblers lose their sex appeal» by Ruth Ostrow. Comment of Paul Symond addiction counsellor specialising in gambling at Sydney’s StEdmonds Private Hospital and problem gambling consultant to the new Sydney Harbour Casino.
25 Moody at page 20
26 Romney «Out of Control» Victorian Relief Committee at page 3; Moody at page 18
27 Moody at page 19
28 Moody at page 44
29 Wagner «To Gamble or Not to Gamble» World 1972 at page 263
30 Wagner at page 311
31 Age Newspaper «Gambler gets jail for striking baby son» David Adams 25 January 1996 – Herald Sun «Jail for casino addict: Anita Quigley 25 January 1996
32 Herald Sun Newspaper «… final spree» 27 January 1997
33 Herald Sun Newspaper – «Gambler in bizarre murder suicide» Natalie Sikora 15 June 1996
34 Age Newspaper «Cruel gambler talked tourists out of money» Victoria Button 6 July 1996 – Herald Sun Newspaper «The thief of hearts» Geoff Wilkinson 6 July 1996
35 Herald Sun «Gambling addict robbed woman, 94» by Sarah Dolan 21 August 1997
36 «Review of Electronic Gaming Machines in Victoria» April 1994, State Government of Victoria -(Schilling Report)
37 Dwight & Louise Crevelt «Video Poker Mania» Gollehon Press Inc 1991 at page 134 [ie not reel machines but draw poker machines]
38 Age Newspaper 25 June 1995
39 Dr John Ross, G-Line director reported in Age Newspaper 17 October 1995
40 Thomas L Romney «Out of Control – An insight into the behavioural traits of the Compulsive Gambler» Victorian Relief Committee 1995 at page 44
41 Moody at page 98
42 David Spanier «Easy Money – Inside the Gambler’s Mind» Penguin 1987 at page 116
43 Hogge at page 39
44 Moody at page 98
45 Romney at page 45
46 Spanier (Easy Money) at page 116
47 Spanier (Easy Money) at page 115
48 Moody at pages 97 and 98
49 Moody at page 98
50 Moody at page 98
51 Hogge at page 39 – evidence given to the House of Lords Committee
52 Herald Sun Newspaper 1 June 1996 – «Gamblers lose their sex appeal» by Ruth Ostrow. Comment of Paul Symond addiction counsellor specialising in gambling at Sydney’s StEdmonds Private Hospital and problem gambling consultant to the new Sydney Harbour Casino.
53 Crevelt at page 134
54 Herald Sun Newspaper 18 May 1996
55 Moody at page 109
56 Mr Dickerson, Institute of Gambling Research, Queensland quoted in Sunday Age, 21 June 1995
57 American Psychological Association article: «Pathological gambling turning into epidemic» by Peter Freeburg
58 Radio 3AW 25 May 1995
59 Judgment of Hampel J – 1 August 1995 – also Herald/Sun Newspaper 2 August 1995 «Stabbing family extends sympathy»
60 Herald Sun 8 June 1996
61 Age Newspaper 17 November 1996
62 Age Newspaper 15 January 1996
63 Herald Sun Newspaper «Attack ruins a life» Lynda Dugdale, «Gambling led to frenzied attack» Wayne Miller and Tanya Giles 2 August 1996 – Herald Sun Newspaper «Poke addict admits knife kill attempt» Norrie Ross 14 June 1996
64 Age Newspaper «Woman jailed for threats to elderly neighbour» Patrick Donovan
65 Herald Sun «Pokies no excuse for crime: judge» Norrie Ross 7 August 1996
66 Herald Sun Newspaper «How could she?» Felicity Lewis 6 June 1996 – Herald Sun Newspaper «Theft mum tells of addiction» Felicity Lewis 8 June 1996 – Age Newspaper – «Gambling case puts focus on addiction» 10 June 1996
67 Age Newspaper «Gullible seduced by gambling ads: judge» Patrick Donovan 8 October 1996
68 Age Newspaper «Warning on casino crime torrent» Sushila Das 1 October 1996
69 Age Newspaper «Courts voice alarm at growing parade of problem gamblers» Sushila Das 28 October 1996
70 Age Newspaper «Courts voice alarm at growing parade of problem gamblers» Sushila Das 28 October 1996
71 Age Newspaper «Woman stole to feed pokies» Sushila Das 12 November 1996 – Herald Sun «Pokies addict» Sarah Dolan 12 November 1996
72 Sunday Age «Casino gambler stole $90,000» Steve Butcher 17 November 1996
73 Herald Sun «Gambler steals $775,000» Andrew Cummins 9 April 1997 – Age Newspaper «Jail for daughter who stole to gamble» Victoria Gurvich 17 April 1997 – Herald Sun «Life debt for gambler» Andrew Cummins 17 April 1997
74 Herald Sun «Gambling bug leads to crimes» Sarah Dolan 29 May 1997

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